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伦伦中文字幕在线|水果志(音频)丨林伦伦:从一粒宋代的橄榄核说起 ——潮语花果蔬菜名称趣谈[转发]

水果志(音频)丨林伦伦:从一粒宋代的橄榄核说起——潮语花果蔬菜名称趣谈[转发]到阳江市海陵岛上的广东海上丝绸之路博物馆参观,从“南海一号”沉船出水的宋代景德镇窑、浙江龙泉窑等精美瓷器和金玉首饰等等,实在精美。大饱眼福之际,一粒毫不起眼的橄榄

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伦伦中文字幕在线|水果志(音频)丨林伦伦:从一粒宋代的橄榄核说起 ——潮语花果蔬菜名称趣谈[转发]
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伦伦中文字幕在线|水果志(音频)丨林伦伦:从一粒宋代的橄榄核说起 ——潮语花果蔬菜名称趣谈[转发]的详细说明:

水果志(音频)丨林伦伦:从一粒宋代的橄榄核说起 ——潮语花果蔬菜名称趣谈[转发]

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到阳江市海陵岛上的广东海上丝绸之路博物馆参观,从“南海一号”沉船出水的宋代景德镇窑、浙江龙泉窑等精美瓷器和金玉首饰等等,实在精美。大饱眼福之际,一粒毫不ɪ起眼的橄榄核儿却引起了我的极大兴趣,原因当然是我们潮汕人嗜食橄榄,我出差阳江时,随身的背包里就有一小袋子青橄榄。我相信,有不少潮汕人跟我一样,出差时总是带着青橄榄或者甘草橄榄的,尤其是乘坐列车或汽车。

我把这粒橄榄核(展览馆的说明标识是这样写的)在朋友圈晒了出来,却有人提出疑问,这不是橄︼榄核(gan2 nan2 hug8),是榄核(lam2/nam2 hug8)。

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 这个疑问引起了我对青橄榄和乌橄榄读音不同的注⻊意:青橄榄及其制品,潮音gan2/ga2 nan2,韵母是鼻化音。“橄榄”俩字不能省略,如“青橄榄” “橄榄糁” “甘草橄榄” “橄榄菜”等;但乌橄榄一般叫做“乌榄”,简称“榄”,潮音lam2/nam2,保留着完整的闭口韵尾 -m,如“榄核”“榄(核)仁”“榄皮”“榄橛”(guêh8)等。

就这样,潮汕话靠语音的内部屈折,把这两个词及其所指(所代表的的实物)分得清清楚楚的。但普通话一参合进来,就乱套了。例如“橄榄菜炒饭/面/粿条”,说普通话可以简称为“榄菜炒饭/面/粿条”。

Ç但问题来了:“榄菜”潮汕话该怎么说呢?念“lam2 cai3” ,还是“nan2 cai3” 呢?

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从一粒橄榄核的读音,想起了其他一些花果蔬菜的名称离奇古怪的来历和读音。

澄海樟林佳果林檎(番荔枝),潮音lim5 kim5,进了澄海城,就变成ling5 king5。本来我以为是古代就有的水果,可一查文献资料才知道,此林檎非彼林檎,古代的林檎指的是苹果一类的东西。网络资料称《齐民要术》已有记载,古代的林檎,果形有大有小,成熟期有夏熟的和冬熟的,颜色白、黄和红,即现在的绵苹果、香果、沙果、槟子之类的东西,中国西北和华北目前仍有少量生产,偶尔有百年以上的老树。日本人苹果就写作“林檎”,日文假名读音近似lin go(林果) ,应该是沿袭了中国古代的名字(此材料请教了韩山师范学院留日博士吴云影教授、庄东红教授)。看来,潮汕人是用古代的水果名称来称呼这进口的水果,张冠李戴了。台湾闽南话把林檎叫做“释迦果”,则以其外部形象命ぱ名。


番石榴,汕头、澄海叫bhag8 gian2,通常写作“木仔”,潮州则叫bhug8 gian2,bhug8就连同音字都找不到了,不知道怎么写它。台湾闽南话写作“芭乐”。看来这也是外语借词了,各地翻译时稍有不同。就像Bush,大陆翻译为布什,台湾翻译为布希,香港翻译为布殊一样。

栗子,或称板栗,潮汕话称gao5 lag8(猴力)。有人认为,gao5 就是“猴”。湘西一带也有此称。沈从文《丈夫》叙述了“猴栗”的故事:“猴子在大山上住,被人辱骂时,抛下拳大栗子打人。人想要栗子,就故意去山下骂丑话,预备捡栗子。” 所以栗子也叫“猴栗”。但古代文献称为“侯栗”,《诗·小雅·四月》:“山有嘉卉,侯栗侯梅。” 陆玑疏引《西京杂记》:“上林苑有侯栗、瑰栗。”《广志》也载:“关中侯栗大如鸡子。” “侯” “猴”同音, gao5是白读音。作姓氏用时,有些地方也读“侯”为gao5 。但就群众应用写作,写“猴栗”恐怕比写“侯栗”容易被接受些。

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芒果,潮汕话叫suain7,本字是“檨”。清·谢振荃修《安溪县志》:“檨,台湾最多……”清·陈蔚《台湾竹枝词》:“菩提香气亚苹婆,檨子累累结实多。”《国朝全闽诗录》卷三注:“檨子,一曰檨实。”清·郁永河《台湾竹枝词》:“枇杷不见黄金果,香檨何劳向客夸。” “檨”可能是闽南方言字,各地读音也多作suain7,(参阅《普通话闽南方言词典》和李熙泰《说檨》)。-uain这个韵母,是很少见的。《潮州话拼音方案》都没有列进去韵母表中,而只作为管字甚少的韵母加以说明。现在的孩子们已经多说“芒果”而不知“檨”之称了。

与“檨”字这个少见韵母相同的还有“黄弹”(黄皮果)是“弹”,读ng5 duain7。“弹”字文读为 tang5(棠),如子弹、弹劾等;白读为duan7(单7),如弹铳(打枪)、弹鸟等。但duain7 比 duan7多了一个 -i-,当是语流中产生的衍音音素。回过头来看“檨”字的读音,也有可能是由suan7 +i=suain7而派生出来的。

У菠菜,潮汕话叫buê1 lêng5,菜市场通常写同音字“飞龙”,其实本字是菠薐,南朝顾野王编的字书《玉篇· 艸部》中已收录:“菠,博何切,菠薐。”“薐,勒登切,菠薐”。据此可知菠菜在此前已传入我国,菠薐乃是外来词的译音。《唐会要·泥婆罗国》:“(贞观)二十一年,遣使献波棱菜、浑提葱。”宋·高承《事物纪原》卷十:“刘公《嘉话录》曰:‘菠薐菜,西国有僧将其子来,韦绚云,岂非颇陵国来,语讹为波棱。’”波棱、菠薐,都是同一音的不同译写,《汉语外来语词典》谓其来自尼泊尔之古名 palinga,即菠薐也,也即韦绚所云之颇陵国。又“菠”今潮音文读为bo1 (波),如“菠菜”读此音。但菠ト薐口语叫buê1 lêng5(飞龙)。现在的少年儿童已经多称“菠菜”而少说“菠薐”了,“菠薐”有被“菠菜”取代的趋向。

栀子花,潮汕话叫siam5 bog8(檐仆),写作“薝蔔”。这也是个译音词,来源于古梵语 campaka。唐·段成式《酉阳杂俎·木篇》:“陶真白言,栀子剪花六出,刻房七道,其花香甚。相传即西域薝蔔花也。”唐·卢纶《送静居法师》诗:“薝蔔名花飘不断,醍醐法味洒何浓!”也有写作“薝卜”者。唐宋诗词中,多见用例。



【感恩读者】日月如梭,光阴似箭;岁岁重阳,今又重阳。2017年7月我卸任韩山师范学院院长之后,稍得宽余,便于当年的九月初九“老人节”开通了“林伦伦方言茶话”。目聂下目(一眨眼),三年就过去了。翻看了一下“方言茶话”的数据记录,三年来一共写下了180篇文章,关注人数14950,单篇阅读量最多者过万,少者未及千;前者是美食散文,后者是艰深一点的方言考释。我不开通打赏功能,不接受商业广告,也不去搭乘头条、抖音等的顺风车以涨粉,纯公益科普,读者是姜太公钓鱼——愿者上钩。我开办公众号的宗旨是方言学科普,向读者推广潮汕方言常识,偶尔也写成散文,但也没有离开方言或乡土文化知识。从写文章、到配图、录音、编辑,都是小编我一个人。但“针无双头利”,工作量有点大,别的事情就只能往后挪,至今文债债台高筑,有三本签了合同的书还没有交稿,我的潮音字典还想修订……“凊饭唔食老狗个”,是文债就得还,有梦想就得圆。另外,世界很精彩,想和老伴趁着“黄金十年”(60-70岁)多出去看看。


于是,只能跟读者微友们说声抱歉,这篇文章之后,就不再保持每周一篇的频次了。今后大概是个把月一篇吧,也不固定,有空就写,没空㊣就罢了。

感谢读者、微友三年来不离不弃的关注和支持!尤其要感谢经常留言、特别是对我的文章提出批评指正的微友们!

Γ

 (本文转自林伦伦方言茶话)


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方言与美食(音频)| 张正:鱼味温州之敲鱼汤(温州鹿城话)

美食文化(音频)| 王艳:驻马店曹运洪胡辣汤(河南汝南话)

方言歌曲推介(音频)丨仪陇情(梁婷演唱,四川仪陇客家话)


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Fruits (audio)丨Lin Lunlun: Speaking from an olive pit from the Song Dynasty——Interesting talk about the names of flowers, fruits and vegetables in Chaoyu [forward] Visit the Guangdong Maritime Silk Road Museum on Hailing Island in Yangjiang City, starting from Nanhai Yi The Jingdezhen kilns of Song Dynasty and Zhejiang Longquan kilns, such as the Jingdezhen kiln and Zhejiang Longquan kiln, were exquisitely exquisite. While feasting my eyes, an unremarkable olive pit aroused my great interest. The reason is of course that we Chaoshan people are addicted to olives. When I was on a business trip to Yangjiang, I had a small bag of green olives in my backpack. I believe that many Chaoshan people, like me, always bring green olives or licorice olives when they travel, especially when traveling by train or car. I posted this olive pit (this is the description of the exhibition hall) on my circle of friends, but someone asked that it is not an olive pit (gan2 nan2 hug8) but an olive pit (lam2/nam2 hug8). u0026nbsp;This question aroused my attention to the different pronunciations of green olives and black olives: green olives and its products, Chaoyin Gan2/ga2 nan2, vowels are nasalized sounds. The two words olive cannot be omitted, such as green olives, olive grits, licorice olives, olive vegetables, etc.; but black olives are generally called wulan, or lan for short, Chaoyin lam2/nam2, reserved Complete closed rhyme ending -m, such as olive core, olive (nucleus) kernel, olive skin, olive (guêh8) and so on. In this way, the Chaoshan dialect relies on the internal inflection of the pronunciation to clearly distinguish these two words and what they refer to (the actual objects they represent). But as soon as Putonghua came in, it was messed up. For example, Fried Rice with Olive Vegetables/Noodles/Kway Teow can be referred to simply as Fried Rice with Olive Vegetables/Noodles/Kway Teow in Mandarin. But here comes the question: what should Lancai Chaoshan dialect say Say lam2 cai3 or nan2 cai3 From the pronunciation of an olive pit, I think of the bizarre origins and pronunciations of the names of other flowers, fruits and vegetables. Chenghai Zhanglin Jiaguo Ringo (Annona), Chaoyin lim5 kim5, enter Chenghai City, it becomes ling5 king5. Originally, I thought it was an ancient fruit, but after checking the literature, I found out that this ringo is not the other ringo, and the ancient ringo refers to things like apples. According to Internet data, Qi Min Yao Shu has been recorded. In ancient Ringo, the fruit shapes were large and small, ripe in summer and winter, and the colors were white, yellow and red, that is, the current cotton apple, fragrant fruit, and sand. Fruits, betels and the like are still produced in a small amount in Northwest and North China, and occasionally there are trees that are more than 100 years old. The Japanese Apple writes Lingo, and the pronunciation of the Japanese pseudonym is similar to lin go (林果), which should have followed the ancient Chinese name (this material consulted Professor Wu Yunying and Professor Zhuang Donghong, Ph.D. from Hanshan Normal University). It seems that the Chaoshan people use the ancient name of the fruit to call this imported fruit, and they are wearing their crowns. The Taiwanese Hokkien dialect calls Ringo Sakyamuni, which is named after its external image. Guava is called bhag8 gian2 in Shantou and Chenghai. It is usually written as Muzai, while in Chaozhou it is called bhug8 gian2. Bhug8 cant be found along with the pronunciation, so I dont know how to write it. Guava is written in Taiwanese Minnan dialect. It seems that this is also a foreign language borrowed word, and the translation is slightly different in different places. Just like Bush, the mainland translates to Bush, Taiwan translates to Bush, and Hong Kong translates to Bush. Chestnut, or chestnut, is called gao5 lag8 (monkey power) in Chaoshan dialect. Some people think that gao5 is a monkey. The Xiangxi area also has this name. Shen Congwens Husband narrated the story of Monkey Li: The monkey lives on the mountain, and when he is insulted by others, he throws his fists and chestnuts to beat people. If people want chestnuts, they deliberately go to the mountain to scold ugly things and prepare to pick them. So chestnuts are also called monkey chestnuts. But the ancient literature is called Hou Li, Poetry·Xiaoya·April: There are Jiahui in the mountains, Hou Li and Hou Mei. Lu Jis quotation from Xijing Miscellaneous: Shanglin Yuan has Hou Li and Gui Li Guangzhi also contains: Guanzhong Hou Li is as big as a chicken. Hou and monkey are homophones, and gao5 is a plain pronunciation. When used as a surname, some places also read Hou as gao5. But as far as mass application writing is concerned, writing Hou Li may be easier to accept than writing Hou Li. Mango is called suain7 in Chaoshan dialect, and the original word is 檨. Qing Xie Zhenquan Anxi County Chronicles: Miao, Taiwan has the most... Qing Chen Wei, Taiwan Zhuzhi Ci: Bodhi fragrance, Yaping Po, numerous and more fruitful stalks. Volume 3 of Guojiao Quanmin Poems Note: Miaozi, one is Shishi. Qing Yu Yonghe, Taiwan Zhuzhi Ci: There is no golden fruit in loquat, so how can citron be praised to the guests. Miao may be southern Fujian dialect, and it is pronounced as suain7 in many places. , (Refer to Mandarin Minnan Dialect Dictionary and Li Xitai Shuo Min). -The vowel of uain is rare. The Chaozhou Dialect Pinyin Plan is not listed in the vowel table, but is only described as a vowel with few Guan characters. Children nowadays have talked more about mango but dont know the name of mira. Similar to the rare vowel of 檨, huangdan (huangpiguo) is dan, pronounced ng5 duain7. The word bomb is pronounced as tang5 (Tang), such as bullets, impeachment, etc.; in white, it is duan7 (single 7), such as bullets (shooting guns), bullet birds, etc. But duain7 has one more -i- than duan7, which is the phonophore produced in the speech stream. Looking back at the pronunciation of the word 檨, it may also be derived from suan7 +i=suain7. Spinach is called buê1 lêng5 in Chaoshan dialect. The homophone Feilong is usually written in the vegetable market. In fact, the original word is spinach. The book Jade Pian· Kebu compiled by King Gu Ye in the Southern Dynasty has included: Bohe, Boheqi , Spinach. 薐, Le Dengqie, spinach. Based on this, we know that spinach has been introduced into my country before, and spinach is the transliteration of foreign words. Tang Huiyao·Niphara Kingdom: (Zhengguan) for 21 years, sent envoys to offer bolling vegetables and scallions. Song Gaochengs Things Jiyuan Volume 10: Liu Gongs Jia Hualu Said: Bo Leng, Bo Leng, the monk in the West came to his son, Wei Xuanyun, is it not from the Poling country, the language is incorrectly called Bo Leng. Bo Leng and Bo Leng are different translations of the same sound, Chinese Loanwords Dictionary said that it came from the ancient name of Nepal, Palinga, which is Bozi Ye, also known as the Poling State of Wei Xuan. Also, Bo is pronounced as bo1 (波) in the modern phonetic text, such as Bo. But the colloquial name of Bozi is buê1 lêng5 (Flying Dragon). Nowadays, teenagers have called spinach more and less spinach. Spinach has a tendency to be replaced by spinach. Gardenia, called siam5 bog8 (Eaves Servant) in Chaoshan dialect, is written as 薝卜. This is also a transliterated word, derived from the ancient Sanskrit campaka. Tang·Duan Chengshi Youyang Miscellaneous Cu·Mu Pian: Tao Zhen Bai Yan, gardenia cut flowers and alstroemeria, carved houses seven ways, its floral fragrance is very good. According to legend, it is also the Western Regions Bud Flower. Tang Lu Lun Send The poem of Jingju Master: The famous and beautiful flowers of the divination continue to flow, how strong is the taste of the method! There are also writers who write the divination. There are many use cases in Tang and Song poems. [Thanksgiving readers] The sun and the moon are like shuttles, and the time is like an arrow; After I stepped down as the dean of Hanshan Normal University in July 2017, I had a little leeway so that the Lin Lunlun Dialect Tea Talk was opened on the Elderly Day on the 9th day of September that year. Mu Nie lowered his eyes (in the blink of an eye), three years passed. Looking at the data record of Dialect Tea Talk, a total of 180 articles have been written in the past three years, with 14,950 followers. The number of single articles is over 10,000 and the few are less than 1,000. The former is gourmet prose, and the latter is A bit more difficult dialect research and interpretation. I do not open the reward function, do not accept commercial advertisements, and do not ride the headlines, Douyin, etc. to increase fans. It is pure public welfare science. The reader is Jiang Taigong fishing-those who wish to get the bait. The purpose of my official account is to popularize dialects, to promote the general knowledge of Chaoshan dialects to readers, and occasionally write prose, but without leaving the dialect or local culture knowledge. From writing articles, to composing pictures, recording, and editing, I am the editor alone. However, the workload is a bit heavy, and other things can only be moved backwards. So far, the debt is high. Three books with signed contracts have not yet been delivered. My Chaoyin dictionary still wants to be revised... Dont eat the old dog. If you have a cultural debt, you have to pay it back. In addition, the world is very exciting, and I want to take advantage of the golden ten years (60-70 years old) to go out with my wife. Therefore, I can only say sorry to the readers and friends. After this article, the frequency of one article per week will no longer be maintained. From now on it will probably be a monthly essay, and it’s not fixed, just write when you have time, and just don’t have time. Thank you readers and Weiyou for their unyielding attention and support over the past three years! Especially thanks to the friends who often leave comments, especially those who criticize and correct my articles! u0026nbsp;(This article is transferred from Lin Lunlun’s tea dialects) Previously recommended dialects and cultures|Wang Wenhao: The dialects and delicacies of Menge in the middle of Anhui (audio)|u0026nbsp;Zhang Zheng: Fishy Wenzhou’s Knock Yutang (Wenzhou Lucheng Dialect) Food Culture (Audio) | Wang Yan: Zhumadian Cao Yunhong Hu spicy soup (Henan Runan dialect) dialect song recommendation (audio) 丨 Yilong Qing (sing by Liang Ting, Sichuan Yilong Hakka dialect) Editor of this issue: Chen Xiaojing Reviewer: Ou Shuyan Editor in charge: Lao Gan Contribution Email: jnufyzx@163 It is not easy to make a language resource protection official account, and it is not easy to update the official account every day, and it is especially not easy to provide new corpus every day. Many readers have not yet formed the habit of rewarding. They advocate rewarding one yuan per month. If you accumulate less, we will make more. Our career will have hope. Thank you all! Lun Lun Chinese Subtitles Online Lun Lun Chinese Subtitles Online I know you are watching
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