您现在的位置: 首页 > 微信营销 > 养生之道 > chong, Approaching Literature: The Hi

chong, Approaching Literature: The Hi

作者:   来源:  热度:5  时间:2021-04-07

This lecture will be co-hosted by the Literature Team of the School of Foreign Studies and the SUFE Centre for the Study of Text and Print Culture 讲

This lecture will be co-hosted by the Literature Team of the School of Foreign Studies and the SUFE Centre for the Study of Text and Print Culture

 讲座摘要/ Abstract 

In this talk, the speaker starts with a review of the “traditional” way of looking at literature, a basically historicist one that focuses more or less on the “historical contexts” of various kinds. Then he contrasts historicist criticisms with “the presentist” way of approaching literature, elaborating on the nature of presentist criticism, the challenge it poses to historicist criticism, its significance for contemporary literary education and study, including some problems of which we have to be aware. Throughout the talk, the speaker will cite cases from contemporary Shakespeare criticism to support his observations and argument.

 主讲人简介/ CV 

Zhang Chong is currently Lecturing Professor of English at Xiamen University. He has taught at Nanjing University and Fudan University. Professor Zhang earned his Ph.D. from Nanjing University in 1989, with Dramatic Irony in Shakespeare and Yuan Drama; post-doc (1991) at Harvard on Renaissance and Shakespeare; Fulbright research scholar (2002) at UPenn & UC Berkeley. He has published extensively on Shakespeare and British-American literature. Major works, in Chinese, include Topics on Shakespeare (2004), Shakespeare in Visual Age (2010), Exploring Shakespeare (2012), From Margin to Center: A History of Native American Literature (2014), and The Dramatic Shakespeare (2019).

More information to get



    当谈到深层生成模型时,通常指三个模型族:变分自动编码器(VAEs)、生成对抗网络(GANs)和归一化流(Normalizing Flows)。









    Blei's Foundation of Graphical Models course, STAT 6701 at Columbia 

    Xing's Probabilistic Graphical Models, 10-708 at CMU

    Collins' Natural Language Processing, COMS 4995 at Columbia


    Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning. Christopher M. Bishop. 2006

    Machine Learning: A Probabilistic Perspective. Kevin P. Murphy. 2012



    Wilker Aziz's DGM Landscape 

    A Tutorial on Deep Latent Variable Models of Natural Language (link), EMNLP 18

    ?Yoon Kim, Sam Wiseman and Alexander M. Rush, Havard

    Deep Generative Models for Natural Language Processing, Ph.D. Thesis 17

  ?Yishu Miao, Oxford

    Stanford CS 236, Deep Generative Models (link)

    NYU Deep Generative Models

    U Toronto CS 2541 Differentiable Inference and Generative Models, CS 2547 Learning Discrete Latent Structures.







    Generating Sentences from a Continuous Space, CoNLL 15

    ?Samuel R. Bowman, Luke Vilnis, Oriol Vinyals, Andrew M. Dai, Rafal Jozefowicz, Samy Bengio


    Spherical Latent Spaces for Stable Variational Autoencoders, EMNLP 18

    ?Jiacheng Xu and Greg Durrett, UT Austin


    Semi-amortized variational autoencoders, ICML 18

    ?Yoon Kim, Sam Wiseman, Andrew C. Miller, David Sontag, Alexander M. Rush, Havard


    Lagging Inference Networks and Posterior Collapse in Variational Autoencoders, ICLR 19

    ?Junxian He, Daniel Spokoyny, Graham Neubig, Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick

    Avoiding Latent Variable Collapse with Generative Skip Models, AISTATS 19

    ?Adji B. Dieng, Yoon Kim, Alexander M. Rush, David M. Blei



    An introduction to Conditional Random Fields. Charles Sutton and Andrew McCallum. 2012

    ?Linear-chain CRFs. Modeling, inference and parameter estimation

    Inside-Outside and Forward-Backward Algorithms Are Just Backprop. Jason Eisner. 2016.

    Differentiable Dynamic Programming for Structured Prediction and Attention. Arthur Mensch and Mathieu Blondel. ICML 2018

    ?To differentiate the max operator in dynamic programming.

    Structured Attention Networks. ICLR 2017

    ?Yoon Kim, Carl Denton, Luong Hoang, Alexander M. Rush

    Recurrent Neural Network Grammars. NAACL 16

    ?Chris Dyer, Adhiguna Kuncoro, Miguel Ballesteros, and Noah Smith.

    Unsupervised Recurrent Neural Network Grammars, NAACL 19

    ?Yoon Kin, Alexander Rush, Lei Yu, Adhiguna Kuncoro, Chris Dyer, and Gabor Melis

    Differentiable Perturb-and-Parse: Semi-Supervised Parsing with a Structured Variational Autoencoder, ICLR 19

    ?Caio Corro, Ivan Titov, Edinburgh


    Categorical Reparameterization with Gumbel-Softmax. ICLR 2017

    ?Eric Jang, Shixiang Gu, Ben Poole

    The Concrete Distribution: A Continuous Relaxation of Discrete Random Variables. ICLR 2017

    ?Chris J. Maddison, Andriy Mnih, and Yee Whye Teh

    Reparameterizable Subset Sampling via Continuous Relaxations. IJCAI 2019

    ?Sang Michael Xie and Stefano Ermon

    Stochastic Beams and Where to Find Them: The Gumbel-Top-k Trick for Sampling Sequences Without Replacement. ICML 19

    ?Wouter Kool, Herke van Hoof, Max Welling





    Auto-Encoding Variational Bayes, Arxiv 13

    ?Diederik P. Kingma, Max Welling

    Variational Inference: A Review for Statisticians, Arxiv 18

    ?David M. Blei, Alp Kucukelbir, Jon D. McAuliffe


    Stochastic Backpropagation through Mixture Density Distributions, Arxiv 16

    ?Alex Graves

    Reparameterization Gradients through Acceptance-Rejection Sampling Algorithms. AISTATS 2017

    ?Christian A. Naesseth, Francisco J. R. Ruiz, Scott W. Linderman, David M. Blei

    Reparameterizing the Birkhoff Polytope for Variational Permutation Inference. AISTATS 2018

    ?Scott W. Linderman, Gonzalo E. Mena, Hal Cooper, Liam Paninski, John P. Cunningham.

    Implicit Reparameterization Gradients. NeurIPS 2018.

    ?Michael Figurnov, Shakir Mohamed, and Andriy Mnih


    Generative Adversarial Networks, NIPS 14

    ?Ian J. Goodfellow, Jean Pouget-Abadie, Mehdi Mirza, Bing Xu, David Warde-Farley, Sherjil Ozair, Aaron Courville, Yoshua Bengio

    Towards principled methods for training generative adversarial networks, ICLR 2017

    ?Martin Arjovsky and Leon Bottou


    Wasserstein GAN

    ?Martin Arjovsky, Soumith Chintala, Léon Bottou

Normalizing Flows相关

    Variational Inference with Normalizing Flows, ICML 15

    ?Danilo Jimenez Rezende, Shakir Mohamed

    Improved Variational Inference with Inverse Autoregressive Flow

    ?Diederik P Kingma, Tim Salimans, Rafal Jozefowicz, Xi Chen, Ilya Sutskever, Max Welling

    Learning About Language with Normalizing Flows

    ?Graham Neubig, CMU, slides

    Latent Normalizing Flows for Discrete Sequences. ICML 2019.

    ?Zachary M. Ziegler and Alexander M. Rush


Reflections and Critics


    Do Deep Generative Models Know What They Don't Know? ICLR 2019

    ?Eric Nalisnick, Akihiro Matsukawa, Yee Whye Teh, Dilan Gorur, Balaji Lakshminarayanan




    Paraphrase Generation with Latent Bag of Words. NeurIPS 2019.

    ?Yao Fu, Yansong Feng, and John P. Cunningham

    A Deep Generative Framework for Paraphrase Generation, AAAI 18

    ?Ankush Gupta, Arvind Agarwal, Prawaan Singh, Piyush Rai

    Generating Informative and Diverse Conversational Responses via Adversarial Information Maximization, NIPS 18

    ?Yizhe Zhang, Michel Galley, Jianfeng Gao, Zhe Gan, Xiujun Li, Chris Brockett, Bill Dolan


    Discovering Discrete Latent Topics with Neural Variational Inference, ICML 17

    ?Yishu Miao, Edward Grefenstette, Phil Blunsom. Oxford

    Topic-Guided Variational Autoencoders for Text Generation, NAACL 19

    ?Wenlin Wang, Zhe Gan, Hongteng Xu, Ruiyi Zhang, Guoyin Wang, Dinghan Shen, Changyou Chen, Lawrence Carin. Duke & MS & Infinia & U Buffalo

    TopicRNN: A Recurrent Neural Network with Long-Range Semantic Dependency, ICLR 17

    ?Adji B. Dieng, Chong Wang, Jianfeng Gao, John William Paisley

    Topic Compositional Neural Language Model, AISTATS 18

    ?Wenlin Wang, Zhe Gan, Wenqi Wang, Dinghan Shen, Jiaji Huang, Wei Ping, Sanjeev Satheesh, Lawrence Carin

    Topic Aware Neural Response Generation, AAAI 17

    ?Chen Xing, Wei Wu, Yu Wu, Jie Liu, Yalou Huang, Ming Zhou, Wei-Ying Ma














褪黑素是松果体分泌的一种激素,是位于下丘脑“生物钟”的主要同步器之一,更为学术的名称为“视交叉上核(SCN)”(31)。褪黑素在昼夜节律系统中有着举足轻重的作用,它可以“调节”人体生理活动,使其与24小时昼夜周期保持同步(8)。亮光会抑制松果体活动和褪黑素的产生;因此,当太阳下山时,对松果体的抑制作用就消除了,提示褪黑素合成的开始(8)。血浆中褪黑素的含量大约在凌晨3:00 – 4:00达到峰值;此后,含量下降,在白天几乎无法检测到褪黑素的含量(8)。




有大量证据支持外服褪黑素可以治疗成人睡眠障碍(2,19,31)。一项2005年的整合分析针对失眠和睡眠良好的人发现,服用0.3 – 10 mg褪黑素剂量可提高睡眠质量,包括改善睡眠时间(+12.8分钟),效率(+ 2.2%)和潜伏期(-4.0分钟))(4)。最近几篇综述证明对于成年人的睡眠障碍褪黑素有相似的效果(2,19,31)。


但是,在睡眠研究中看到的一致但相对适度的改善提出了“为什么?”的问题。有很多可能性,但是要考虑的是褪黑素研究中通常给予的各种剂量。研究人员通常使用低至0.3 mg或高至10 mg的剂量(4,9,24)。目前尚未达成关于成年人服用褪黑素最佳剂量的共识。然而,2014年的整合分析为了解服用剂量提供了出发点(30)。尽管作者无法在文中确定最佳剂量,但他们建议的“可能最低剂量”为“ 0.3 mg至多1 – 2 mg”(30)。

支持该结论的另一项整合分析发现,尽管外服褪黑素确实改善了成年人和患有睡眠障碍儿童的睡眠参数指标,但目前不存在剂量依赖性,意味着用量更多并不代表效果更好(11)。近期皮尔斯等人指出最小有效剂量可能在1-6毫克之间,但同时强调了指出他们所参照的研究缺乏一致性,并指出需要进行更有针对性的研究(24)。最新的研究证据表明最佳剂量可能为0.3 – 2 mg(30)。



营养品掺假,受污染和贴错标签都是普遍存在的问题(10、23、28)。例如,一项关于现成草药产品的研究发现,三分之一的产品含有不在成分清单中的污染物或填料,其中有些是已知的毒性物质(23)。另一项关于营养品的研究发现可能有某些真菌和细菌污染具有潜在毒性(28)。褪黑素当然也逃不开这个问题。事实上,最近对褪黑素的一项研究发现了其功效问题,其中含量值的范围从标记数量的-83%到+ 478%不等(10)。尽管这个问题并非只存在于褪黑素中,但依然值得关注。



作者得出的结论是,尽管褪黑素副作用是短暂的,但这种结果可能也与“日间给药相关”,通过避免日间服用褪黑素可以“轻松地避免”(12)。褪黑素似乎是安全的,因为它副作用发生的概率与安慰剂相似。对褪黑素研究最多的人之一,Russel Reiter博士,将褪黑素描述为具有“异常高的安全性”来表明其安全性(26)。精神运动和神经认知障碍这类严重的副作用似乎与褪黑素的服用时间有关,因此,应该模仿褪黑素的正常昼夜节律性升高(即在就寝时间之前)进行服用补充。(12)。





5??嘻SFy7XaXADOD嘻 https://m.tb.cn/h.4Nsih1U?sm=640e31  NSCA-CPT备考套餐|备考教材|备考重點|备考题|赠送代报名服务



1. Andersen, LPH, G?genur I, Rosenberg, J and Reiter, RJ. The safety of melatonin in humans. Clinical Drug Investigation 36(3): 169-175, 2016.2. Auld, F, Maschauer, EL, Morrison, I, Skene, DJ and Riha, RL. Evidence for the efficacy of melatonin in the treatment of primary adult sleep disorders. Sleep Medicine Reviews 34: 10-22, 2017.3. Besag, FMC, Vasey, MJ, Lao, KSJ and Wong, ICK. Adverse events associated with melatonin for the treatment of primary or secondary sleep disorders: A systematic review. CNS Drugs 33(12): 1167-1186, 2019.4. Brzezinski, A, Vangel, MG, Wurtman, RJ, Norrie, G, Zhdanova, I, Ben-Shushan, A, and Ford, I. Effects of exogenous melatonin on sleep: A meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews 9(1): 41-50, 2005.5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Short sleep duration among US adults. Retrieved December 11, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/sleep/data_statistics.html.6. Chong, Y, Fryer, CD, and Gu, Q. Prescription sleep aid use among adults: United States, 2005-2010. NCHS Data Brief 127: 1-8, 2013.7. Clarke, TC, Black, LI, Stussman, BJ, Barnes, PM, and Nahin, RL. Trends in the use of complementary health approaches among adults: United States, 2002-2012. National Health Statistics Reports 10(79): 1-16, 2015.8. Claustrat, B, and Leston, J. Melatonin: Physiological effects in humans. Neuro-Chirurgie 61(2-3): 2015.9. Costello, RB, Lentino, CV, Boyd, CC, O’Connell, ML, Crawford, CC, Sprengel, ML, and Deuster, PA. The effectiveness of melatonin for promoting healthy sleep: A rapid evidence assessment of the literature. Nutrition Journal 13: 2014.10. Erland, LAE, and Saxena, PK. Melatonin natural health products and supplements: Presence of serotonin and significant variability of melatonin content. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 13(2): 275-281, 2017.11. Ferracioli-Oda, E, Qawasmi, A, and Bloch, MH. Meta-analysis: Melatonin for the treatment of primary sleep disorders. PLoS One 8(5): 2013.12. Foley, HM, and Steel, AE. Adverse events associated with oral administration of melatonin: A critical systematic review of clinical evidence. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 42: 65-81, 2019.13. Gonciarz, M, Mularczyk, A, Szkud?apski, D, Konturek, SJ,?and Konturek, PC. A case of melatonin-induced biochemical flare in a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis with features of autoimmune hepatitis. Przeglad Gastroenterologiczny 14(2): 157-159, 2019.14. Grigg-Damberger, MM, and Ianakieva, D. Poor quality control of over-the-counter melatonin: What they say is often not what you get. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 13(2): 275-281, 2017.15. H?rtter, S, Nordmark, A, Rose, DM, Bertilsson, L, Tybring, G, and Laine, K. Effects of caffeine intake on the pharmacokinetics of melatonin, a probe drug for CYP1A2 activity. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 56(6): 679-682, 2003.16. Herxheimer, A, and Petrie, KJ. Melatonin for the prevention and treatment of jet lag. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Review 2: 2002.17. Hilli, J, Korhonen, T, Turpeinen, M, Hokannen, J, Mattila,?S, and Laine, K. The effect of oral contraceptives on the pharmacokinetics of melatonin in healthy subjects with CYP1A2g. -163C>A polymorphism. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology48(8): 986-984, 2008.18. Hong, YG, and Riegler, JL. Is melatonin associated the development of autoimmune hepatitis? Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 25(1): 376-378, 1997.19. Li, T, Jiang, S, Han, M, Yang, Z, Lv, J, Deng, et al. Exogenous melatonin as a treatment for secondary sleep disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 52: 22-28, 2018.20. Liira, J, Verbeek, JH, Costa, G, Driscoll, TR, Sallinen, M, Isotalo, LK, and Ruotsalainen, JH. Pharmacological interventions for sleepiness and sleep disturbances caused by shift work. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 8: 2014.21. Mordor Intelligence. Melatonin market – Growth, trends, and forecast (2020 – 2025).?Retrieved December 2, 2020 from https://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/ melatonin-market.22. Nawaz, MA, Huang, Y, Bie, Z, Ahmed, W, Reiter, RJ, Niu, M, and Hameed, S. Melatonin: Current status and future perspectives in plant science. Frontiers in Plant Science 11: 2016.23. Newmaster, SG, Grguric, M, Shanmughanandhan, D, Ramalingam, S, and Ragupathy, S. DNA barcoding detects contamination and substitution in North American herbal products. BMC Medicine 11: 2013.24. Pierce,M,Linnebur,SA,Pearson,SM,andFixen,DR.Optimal melatonin dose in older adults: A clinical review of the literature. The Senior Care Pharmacist 34(7): 419-431, 2019.25. Reiter, RJ. The pineal gland and melatonin in relation to aging: A summary of the theories and of the data. Experimental Gerontology 30(3-4): 1995.26. Reiter,RJ,Mayo,JC,Tan,DX,Sainz,RM,Alatorre-Jimenez,M, and Qin, L. Melatonin as an antioxidant: Under promises but over delivers. Journal of Pineal Research 61(3): 253-278, 2016.27. Sateia, MJ, Buysse, DJ, Krystal, AD, Neubauer, DN and Heald, JL. Clinical practice guideline for the pharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia in adults: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 13(2): 2017.28. Tournas,VH.Microbialcontaminationofselectdietary supplements. Journal of Food Safety 29: 430-442, 2009.29. Ursing, C, von Bahr, C, Brismar, K, and R?jdmark, S. Influence of cigarette smoking on melatonin levels in man. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 61(3): 197-201, 2005.30. Vural,EMS,vanMunster,BC,anddeRooij,SE.Optimal dosages for melatonin supplementation therapy in older adults: A systematic review of current literature. Drugs and Aging 31(6): 441-451, 2014.31. Xie, Z, Chen, F, Li, WA, Geng, X, Li, C, Meng, X, et al. A review of sleep disorders and melatonin. Neurological Research 39(6): 559-565, 2017.32. Zhang, Q, Gao, F, Zhang, S, Sun, W, and Li, Z. Prophylactic use of exogenous melatonin and melatonin receptor agonists to improve sleep and delirium in intensive care units: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sleep and Breathing 23(4): 1059-1070, 2019.33. Zhang, R, Wang, X, Ni, L, Di, X, Ma, B, Niu, S, et al. COVID-19: Melatonin as a potential adjuvant treatment. Life Sciences 250, 2020.









??点击“微信群二维码”查看NSCA-CPT线上视频课程 转载请注明出处:chong, Approaching Literature: The Hi:http://www.720weixin.com/marketing/408297.html

  • 登录