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聊斋艳谭之战艳魔在线|【初中语文】中考语文文学常识总汇

【初中语文】中考语文文学常识总汇中考语文文学常识总汇(一)春秋时代1、孔子,名丘,字仲尼,又称尼父、圣父,鲁国人,儒家创始人。书为孔子弟子及其再传弟子编成。所学课文《论语》20篇,各取篇中开头二字为篇名,如《学而》、《为政》等。记录了孔子及

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聊斋艳谭之战艳魔在线|【初中语文】中考语文文学常识总汇
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聊斋艳谭之战艳魔在线|【初中语文】中考语文文学常识总汇的详细说明:

【初中语文】中考语文文学常识总汇

中考语文文学常识总汇


(一)春秋时代 


1、孔子,名丘,字仲尼,又称尼父、圣父,鲁国人,儒家创始人。书为孔子弟子及其再传弟子编成。所学课文《论语》20篇,各取篇中开头二字为篇名,如《学而》、《为政》等。记录了孔子及其弟子的言行,代表了孔子的基本思想。诸子哲理散文,语录体,列为"四书"(《大学》《中庸》《论语》《孟子》)之一。 所学课文《<论语>十二章》   


∈2、左丘明,鲁国史官。所学课文《左传》,《春秋左氏传》又名《左氏春秋》。《曹刿论战》、《曹崤论战》、《崤之战》、《烛之武退秦师》等选自此书。我国第一部叙事详备的编年体史书,历史散文。记载春秋时期史实,富有文学性。所学课文《曹刿论战》


(二)战国时代 


3、孟子,名轲,字子舆,战国时儒家代表人物,世称亚圣。书由其弟子编辑。记载了孟子的思想和政治言论。诸子哲理散文,"四书"之一。孟子长于论辩,善用比喻,对后世议论性散文的发展影响较大。所学课文《孟子》2篇,各取篇中开头几字为篇名,《富贵不能淫》《生于忧患死于安乐》《鱼我所欲也》。


 4、列子,名御寇,道家前辈。所学课文《列子》又名《冲虚真经》。诸子哲理散文。所学课文《杞人忧天》《愚公移山》


5、庄子。名周,世称南华真人,道家代表人物。所学课文《庄子》,又名《南华经》现存33篇。诸子哲理散文,具有浓厚的浪漫色彩,对后世文学有很大影响。所学课文:《北冥有鱼》《庄子与惠子游于濠梁之上》。


6、吕不韦,秦相,集合门客编成《吕氏春秋》。所学课文《吕氏春秋》。又名《吕览》共160篇。收入诸子哲理散文,杂家的代表著作。所学课文:《穿井得一人》


7、屈原,名平。我国第一个爱国主义、浪漫主义诗人,开创楚辞新诗体,被列为世界文化名人。所学课文《离骚》、《九歌》(包括《山鬼》《国殇》等11篇)、《天问》、《九章》(包括 《涉江》《哀郢》《橘颂》等9篇)。西汉刘向编成《楚辞》一书,以屈作为主。因具有浓厚的楚国地方色彩,故称"楚辞",后世因称这种诗体为"楚辞体"、"骚体"。开创了我国诗歌浪漫主义传统。《离骚》和《诗经》中的国风并称"风骚",成为"文学"的代名词。


(三)两汉   


8、司马迁·字子长,别称太史公,简称史迁。与司马光并称"ー史界两司马",与班固并称"班马"。所学课文《史记》又名《太史公书》全书130篇,包括12本纪、8书、10表、30世家、70列传。历史散文。我国第一部纪传体通史,开创本纪、世家、列传、表、书五种体例,被誉为"实录、信史""史家之绝唱,无韵之离骚",史学"双璧"之一,前"三史"之首。所学课文:周亚夫军细柳》。


9、刘向,根据战国史书整理编辑的国别体史书《战国策》。所学课文:唐雎不辱使命《邹忌讽齐王纳谏》


10、《礼记》战国至秦汉论著汇编,相传是西汉经学家戴圣编纂的。有《曲礼》《檀弓》《王制》《月令》《礼运》《学记》《乐记》《中庸》《大学》等四十九篇。所学课文:《虽有佳肴》选自《礼记.学记》;《大道之行也》选自《礼记.礼运》。


r(四)三国两晋南北朝


11、乐府,所学课文《十五从军征》、《孔雀东南飞》。前者见宋代郭茂倩编的《乐府诗集》,后者见南朝徐陵编的《玉台新咏》,其中《孔雀东南飞》是我国古代最长的叙事诗。与《木兰诗》合称"乐府双璧"。所学课文:《十五从军征》《木兰诗》。 


12、曹操,小名阿瞒,字孟德,追尊为武帝,"三曹"之首。所学课文《魏武帝集》。属乐府歌辞。开创"建安风骨"新风。鲁迅称他是"一个改造文章的祖师"。所学课文《龟虽寿》《观沧海》等。


13、《世说新语》主要记载汉末至东晋士大夫的言谈、轶事,是由南朝宋文学家刘义庆组织一批文人编写的。所学课文《咏雪》《陈太丘与友期行》


14诸葛亮,字孔明,别号卧龙,三国时期蜀汉政治家和军事家,封武乡侯。有《诸葛亮集》,所学课文《诫子书》《出师表》 


15、郦道元,北魏地理学家,撰写《水经注》四十卷。《水经注》名为注释《水经》,实则以《水经》为纲,广为补充发展,自成巨著,是我国古代地理名著,并具有较高的文学价值。所学课文:《三峡》


16、陶弘景,自号华阳隐居,南朝齐梁时道教思想家,有《陶隐居集》。所学课文:《答谢中书书》


17、吴均,南朝梁文学家。本文选自《吴均集校注》。所学课文:《与朱元思书》


18、刘桢,字公干。东汉末诗人,“建安七子”之一。所学课文《赠从弟》。 


19、陶渊明,一名潜,字元亮,自号五柳先生,谥靖节,我国第一位杰出的田园诗人。有《陶渊明集》代表作有《桃花源记》《归去来兮辞》《归园田居》《饮酒》等。 


20、曹植,字子建,封陈王,谥思,后称陈思王,"三曹"之一。代表作有《野田黄雀行》《七步诗》《洛神赋》。所学课文:《梁甫行》


(五)唐 


21、王勃,字子安,"初唐四杰"之一(另三位是骆宾王、卢照邻、杨炯)。著有《王子安集》。他在"四杰"中成就最高。所学课文《送杜少府之任蜀州》


22、崔颢,汴州(河南开封)人所学课文《黄鹤楼》


23、王湾,唐代诗人。所学课文《次北固山下》客路青山外,行路绿水前。 


24、王绩,字无功,绛州龙门人,唐代诗人。所学课文《野望》 


25、陈子昂,字伯玉,梓州射洪(今属四川)人 ,唐代文学家,其诗标举汉魏风骨,强调兴寄,反对柔靡之风。被誉为“诗骨”。所学课文《登幽州台歌》


26、孟浩然,襄阳人。唐代第一个大量写山水诗的人,与王维齐名,世称"王孟"。著有《孟襄阳集》。所学课文《望洞庭湖赠张丞相》。 


27王昌龄,字少伯,江宁人。曾任龙标尉,世称王龙标,七绝圣手。所学课文《出塞》、《从军行》。后人辑有《王昌龄集》,善边塞诗、宫怨诗。 


28、王维,字摩洁,官至尚书右丞,故称王右丞,信仰佛教,被称为“诗佛”。与孟浩然同为盛唐田园山水派代表,并称“王孟”苏轼赞为“诗中有画”、“画中有诗”。著有《王右丞集》,所学课文:《竹里馆》、《使至塞上》。 


29、常建,可能是长安人,开元进士,所学课文:《题破山寺后禅院》。


30、李白,字太白,别号青莲居士,人称"诗仙"。与杜甫齐名,人称"李杜"。唐代三大诗人之一。有《李太白选集》,属浪漫主义豪放派,古典诗歌艺术的高蜂。韩愈称赞说:"李杜文章在,光焰万丈长。"所学课文《闻王昌龄左迁龙标遥有此寄》、《峨眉山月歌》、《春夜洛城闻笛》、《渡荆门送别》、《送友人》、《行路难》。


31、杜甫,字子美,自称少陵野老,曾任左拾遗、检校工部员外郎,世称杜拾遗、杜工部。与李白齐名,人称"诗圣"。唐代三大诗人之一。名篇有"三吏"(《新安吏》、《石壕吏》、《潼关吏》)、"三别"(《新婚别》、《垂老别》、《无家别》)等,著有《杜工部集》。现实主义诗歌艺术的高峰,被称为"诗史"。首创记事名篇的乐府诗,直接推动了后来白居易为首的新乐府运动。所学课文《江南逢李龟年》《望岳》《春望》《茅屋为秋风所破歌》《月夜忆舍弟》


32、岑参,曾任嘉州刺史,世称岑嘉州。边塞诗派的重要代表,著有《岑嘉州诗集》。所学课文《行军九日思长安故园》《逢入京使》《白雪歌送武判官归京》等。 


33、韩愈,字退之,官至吏部侍郎,谥号文,世称韩吏部,韩文公,郡望昌黎,又称韩昌黎。唐代古文运动倡导者,唐宋八大家之首。与柳宗元并称"韩柳"。他主张恢复先秦两汉散文传统,摒弃南北朝以来的骄体文;主张文章内容的充实,并"唯陈言之务去"。在诗歌创作上主张"以文为诗",力求新奇。著有《昌黎先生集》所学课文:《晚春》《马说》《左迁至蓝关示侄孙湘》。 


34、刘长卿 字文房,汉族,宣城(今属安徽)人,唐代诗人。刘长卿的名作《逢雪宿芙蓉山主人》。所学课文:《长沙过贾谊宅》


35、刘禹锡,字梦得·曾任太子宾客,世称刘宾客。与柳宗元合称"刘柳",与白居易合称"刘白"。有《刘宾客集》、《刘梦得文集》。所学课文《秋词》《陋室铭》、《酬乐天扬州初逢席上见赠》


36、白居易,字乐天。号香山居士。中唐新乐府运动的主要倡导者,唐代三大诗人之一,与元稹合称"元白"。。他是现实主义传统的继承者,主张"文章合为时而著,歌诗合为事而作"。通俗派的代表,相传老妪可懂。自编为《白氏长庆集》(后人又编为《白香山诗集》)所学课文《钱塘湖春行》《卖炭翁》


37、柳宗元,字子厚,因系河东人,人称柳河东,曾任柳州刺史,又称柳柳州。唐代古文运动的领导者之一,与韩愈并称"韩柳"。"八大家"之一。所学课文《捕蛇者说》、《三戒》(包括《黔之驴》)、"永州八记"(包括《小石潭记》、《石渠记》等散文)。还有《渔翁》、《江雪》等诗。著有《柳河东集》。他是中国第一个把寓言正式写成独立的文学作品的作家,开拓了我国古代寓言文学发展的新阶段。所学课文《小石潭记》、《童区寄传》。


38、温庭筠(约812-866),唐代诗人、词人。本名岐,字飞卿,太原祁(今山西祁县东南)人,温庭筠精通音律,工诗,词话。其诗辞藻华丽,秾艳精致,与李商隐时称"温李",其词注重词的文采和声情,今存七十余首,收录于《花间集》《金荃词》等书中,被尊为"花间词派"之鼻祖,与韦庄并称"温韦"。所学课文《商山早行》。


39、李贺,字长吉。其作品想象奇特,用词瑰丽,有浪漫主义色彩,风格独特。被称为“诗鬼” ,著有《昌谷集》。 所学课文《雁门太守行》。


40、杜牧,字牧之,别称小杜,与李商隐齐名,并称"小李杜"。晚年居樊川别墅,因号杜樊川。他尤擅七律七绝。赋作的散文化倾向对后世影响较大,著有《樊川诗集注》。所学课文《赤壁》 。


41、李商隐,字义山,号玉溪生,又号樊南生。著有《李义山诗集》,另有《樊南文集》。所学课文《夜雨寄北》、《贾生》、《无题》等。《无题》诗多以爱情为题材,缠绵秀丽,对后代有很大的影响。 


42、许浑(约791~约858),字用晦(一作仲晦),唐代诗人,润州丹阳(今江苏丹阳)人。晚唐最具影响力的诗人之一所学课文:《咸阳城东楼》。


(六)宋 


43、范仲淹,字希文,谥文正,北宋(朝代)政治家、军事家、文学家。著有《范文正公集》,所学课文《岳阳楼记》、《渔家傲》等。 


✍44、欧阳修,字永叔,号醉翁,六一居士,谥号文忠。北宋文坛领袖,“唐宋八大家” (韩愈、柳宗元、欧阳修、苏轼、苏洵、苏辙、王安石、曾巩)之一。与宋祁合修《新唐书》,独撰《新五代史》。著有《欧阳文忠集》。《六一诗话》是我国第一部诗话。所学课文:《卖油翁》《醉翁亭记》《采桑子》(轻舟短棹西湖好)


45、范仲淹,字希文,谥号文正,北宋(朝代)政治家、军事家、文学家。著有《《范仲淹全集》,所学课文:《岳阳楼记》。 


46、王安石,江西临川人,字介甫,号半山,封荆国公,谥号文,世称王荆公、王文公、王临川,唐宋八大家之一,中国十一世纪的改革家。集为《王临川集》。所学课文《登飞来峰》《元日》《泊船瓜州》等, 


¿47、司马光,字君实,封温国公,谥号文正,涑水乡人,世称涑水先生。史界"两司马"之一。 主编的《资治通鉴》是我国最大的一部编年体通史,记上自战国下至五代计1362年的史实。史书"双璧"之一。所学课文《孙权劝学》


48、周敦颐,字茂叔,谥元公,道州营道(今湖南道县)人。 北宋哲学家,著有《太极图说》《通书》等。所学课文:《爱莲说》


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49、苏轼,字子瞻,号东坡居士。谥号文忠。"八大家"之一,在书法上与蔡襄、黄庭坚、米蒂并称"宋四家"。宋代最伟大的文人。能"出新意于法度之中,寄妙理于豪放之外"。开创了豪放词派。与韩愈并誉为"韩潮苏海"。著有《东坡文集》。所学课文:《记承天寺夜游》《卜算子.黄州定慧院寓居作》《水调歌头》(明月几时有)《江城子.密州出猎》、《定风波》(莫听穿林打叶声)。


50、秦观,字少游,一字太虚,江苏高邮人。被尊为婉约派一代词宗,别号邗沟居士,学者称其淮海居士。北宋文学家、词人。代表作品:《鹊桥仙》《淮海集》《淮海居士长短句》。所学课文:《行香子》 (树绕村庄)


51、李清照,号易安居士,山东济南人,同辛弃疾是同城人。古代最重要的女诗人,宋代婉约词派中成就最高者,著有《漱玉词》。所学课文《渔家傲》(天接云涛连晓雾)《如梦令》(常记溪亭日暮)。 


52、陆游,字务观,号放翁。人称"小李白"。著有《剑南诗稿》、《渭南文集》、《老学魔笔记》。中国古代最高产的诗人(有诗9000多首)。所学课文《十一月四日风雨大作》《游山西村》《卜算子.咏梅》 


й53、辛弃疾,字幼安,号稼轩,与苏轼并称"苏辛"。人称"词中之龙"。所学课文《稼轩长短句》。宋词中成就卓异者,继承并发展了苏轼的豪放词风,开拓了词的表现范围。所学课文《丑奴儿.书博山道中壁》(少年不识愁滋味)、《破阵子.为陈同甫赋壮词以寄之》《太常引.建康中秋夜为吕叔潜赋》《南乡子.登京口北固亭有怀》。


54、文天祥,字宋瑞,履善,号文山,民族英雄。有《文山先生全集》。爱国情怀,激昂动人。所学课文《过零丁洋》《南安军》


55、陈与义,字去非,号简斋。北宋末、南宋初年的杰出诗人,同时也工于填词。其词存于今者虽仅十余首,却别具风格,尤近于苏东坡,语意超绝,笔力横空,疏朗明快,自然浑成,著有《简斋集》。所学课文《临江仙·夜登小阁,忆洛中旧游》
    
(七)元 


56、马致远,字千里,号东篱。元曲"四大家"(关汉卿、郑光祖、白朴)之一。所学课文杂剧《汉宫秋》,散曲《天净沙·秋思》(被誉为“秋思之祖”)等,著有《东篱乐府》。元散曲作者中成就最高者之一。所学课文《天净沙·秋思》
57、张养浩,字希孟,号云庄,又称齐东野人,元代著名政治家,文学家。所学课文《山坡羊·潼关怀古》《山坡羊·骊山怀古》。
  
(八)明 


∅58、施耐庵,元末明初人。所学课文《忠义水游传》,简称《水浒》有百回本,百二十回本和七十回本。是我国第一部反映农民起义的长篇章回小说,对后世农民起义发生了巨大影响。 所学课文《智取生辰纲》


59、罗贯中,元末明初人。名本,号湖海散人,中国第一位全力创作通俗小说的作家。主要作品有《三国志通俗演义》(简称《三国演义》、《隋唐志传》、《三国》),为我国第一部长篇历史章回小说。所学课文《三顾茅庐》 


60、吴承恩,字汝忠,号射阳山人。所学课文《西游记》是著名长篇章回神魔小说,是古典文学中最辉煌的神话作品,标志着浪漫主义文学的新高峰。 


ǎ61、魏学洢,字子敬,明末(朝代)嘉善人。所学课文《核舟记》。 

:

62、宋濂,字景濂,号潜溪,谥文宪。元末明初文学家,曾被明太祖朱元璋誉为“开国文臣之首”,学者称太史公。宋濂与高启、刘基并称为“明初诗文三大家”。著作有《宋学士文集》等。所学课文《送东阳马生序》


63、张岱,字宗子,号陶痷,山阴(今浙江绍兴)人,明末清初文学家。著有《陶庵梦忆》《西蒙梦寻》等。所学课文《湖心亭看雪》


64、夏完淳,原名复,字存古,号小隐。明末少年抗清英雄,著名诗人。其父夏允彝,其师陈子龙,均是文名卓著、讲求气节的英雄。所学课文《别云间》


65、王磐,字鸿渐,称为南曲之冠。明代散曲作家、画家,亦通医学。从年轻时起即鄙视功名,筑楼高邮城西,与名流谈咏其间,因自号“西楼”。其散曲题材广泛,虽多闲适之作,亦有同情人民疾苦、讥讽时政的佳作。所学课文《朝天子·咏喇叭》


聊斋艳谭之战艳魔在线(九)清


66、·纪昀,字晓岚,一字春帆,晚号石云,道号观弈道人,直隶献县(今河北沧州市)人。清代政治家、文学家,著有《阅微草堂笔记》。《阅微草堂笔记》是以笔记形式写成的志怪小说,以记述狐鬼故事、奇特见闻为主。所学课文:《河中石兽》 


67、·蒲松龄,字留仙,号柳泉居士,世称聊斋先生。所学课文《聊斋志异》,《促织》、《狼》、《席方平》、《劳山道士》、《画皮》等出于此。我国古代著名的文言短篇小说集。以谈鬼说狐方式反映现实。所学课文《狼》


68、吴敬梓,字文木,敏轩。所学课文《儒林外史》。所学课文《范进中举》 


69、曹古芹,名沾·字梦阮,号雪芹,芹圃,芹溪。主要作品《红楼梦》(高鹗续后40回)为最伟大的现实主义长篇古典小说,是中国古典小说发展的高峰。所学课文《刘姥姥进大观园》 


70、纳兰性德,叶赫那拉氏,字容若,号楞伽山人,满洲正黄旗人,清朝初年词人。所学课文《浣溪沙》(身向云山那畔行)
 
 (十)现代 


71、 朱自清(1898—1948),字佩弦,江苏扬州人,散文家,诗人,学者,民主战士。代表作有《踪迹》《欧游杂记》《松堂游记》等。所学课文《春》、《背影》   


72、鲁迅,原名周树人,字豫才。伟大的文学家、思想家、革命家,中国文化革命的主将。"寄意寒星荃不察,我以我血荐轩辕";"横眉冷对千夫指,俯首甘为孺子牛",这是他一生的真实写照。主要作品有小说集《呐喊》 《彷徨》《故事新编》;散文集《朝花夕拾》;散文诗集《野草》;杂文集《二心集》 《华盖集》《且介亭杂文》。


《朝花夕拾》原名《旧事重提》,是一本回忆性散文集。这本书是鲁迅回忆童年、少年和青年⒀时期中不同生活经历和体验的文字。全书由《小引》《狗·猫·鼠》《阿长与〈山海经〉》《二十四孝图》《五猖会》《无常》《从百草园到三味书屋》《父亲的病》《琐记》《藤野先生》《范爱农》《后记》12部分组成。《朝花夕拾》一书使得更多的青少年能够分享鲁迅的“温馨的回忆和理性的批判”。


所学课文《从百草园到三味书屋》 《藤野先生》 《阿长与<山海经>》均选自《朝花夕拾》;《故乡》《社戏》 《孔乙己》均选自《呐喊》,《中国人失掉自信力了吗》选自《呐喊》


73、毛泽东,字润之,他是中华人民共和国的主要缔造者和领导人,伟大的无产阶级革命家、军事家、思想家。所学课文《纪念白求恩》《沁园春.雪》


74、梁实秋,原名治华,字实秋,浙江杭县人。现代作家、文学评论家、翻译家。译著《莎士比亚全集》等。所学课文《鸟》


75、臧克家,山东诸城人,诗人。代表作有诗集《烙印》,诗歌《老马》《有的人》. 所学课文《闻一多先生的说和做》


76、闻一多,湖北浠水人,诗人学者、民主战士。代表作有诗集《红烛》《死水》;学术著作有《神话与诗》《唐诗杂论》。


77、郭沫若,原名郭开贞,号尚武。杰出的作家、诗人和戏剧家,也是历史学家和古文字学家。是继鲁迅之后中国文化战线上的又一面旗帜。所学课文1921年出版的诗集《女神》 (包括《凤凰涅盘》《女神之再生》《炉中煤》等);历史剧作有《棠棣之花》《屈原》《虎符》 《高渐离》 《孔雀胆》 《蔡文姬》 《武则天》等,《女神》是一部杰出的浪漫主义诗集,是我国新文学史上第一部不朽的诗歌作品,开了一代新诗风。奠定了新诗运动的基础。 所学课文:《天上的街市》戏剧《屈原》 


78、萧红,原名张迺(nǎi)莹,黑龙江呼兰人,中国近现代作家,被誉为“20世纪30年代的文学洛神”。代表作有小说《呼兰河传》《生死场》。所学课文《回忆鲁迅先生》
79、端木蕻良,辽宁昌图人,原名曹京平,作家。代表作有《科尔沁旗草原》


80、张中行,河北香河河北屯(今属天津)人,学者,散文家。与季羡林、金克木合称“燕园三老”。季羡林称赞他“高人、逸人、超人”。代表作《负暄琐话》。所学课文:《叶圣陶先生二三事》


81、叶圣陶,名绍钧。现代作家,教育家。所学课文长篇小说《倪焕之》,短篇小说有《多收了三五斗》、《夜》等,童话集有《稻草人》、《古代英雄的石像》,他是中国现代文学史上最早写童话的作家。 


82、梁启超,字卓如,号任公,又号饮冰室主人。清朝光绪年间举人,中国近代思想家、政治家、教育家、史学家、文学家。戊戌变法(百日维新)领袖之一、中国近代维新派代表人物。所学课文:《最苦与最乐》《敬业与乐业》


83、朱德,字玉阶,四川仪陇人, 中国共产党、中国人民解放军和中华人民共和国的主要缔造者和领导人之一。伟大的无产阶级革命家、军事家、政治家。所学课文:《回忆我的母亲》


  84、茅盾,原名沈德鸿,字雁冰,茅盾是笔名。现代杰出作家,"五四"新文学运动的先驱之一。所学课文《蚀》三部曲(《幻灭》、《动摇》、《追求》)、《子夜》、"农村三部曲"(《春蚕》 《秋收》 《残冬》) 《林家铺子》,散文《风景谈》,《子夜》是我国现代文学史上第一部现实主义长篇杰作,显示了"左翼"文学阵营的战斗实绩。所学课文:《白杨礼赞》


85、汪曾祺,现当代作家,代表作有《受戒》《大淖纪事》等。 所学课文:《昆明的雨》


86、老舍,原名舒庆春,字舍予,满族人。1950年获"人民艺术家"称号。所学课文长篇小说《骆驼样子》 《四世同堂》,剧本《茶馆》 《龙须沟》 《西望长安》等。浓郁的地方色彩,生动活泼的北京口语的运用,通俗而不乏幽默。形成了老舍的风格,也是"京味小说"的开创者。所学课文《济南的冬天》 


87、茅以升,我国桥梁专家。所学课文《中国石拱桥》


88、叶圣陶,原名叶绍钧,字圣陶,作家,教育家。代表作有长篇小说《倪焕之》等。所学课文《苏州园林》《驱遣我们的想象》 


89、陶行知(1891年10月18日-1946年7月25日),原名陶文浚。安徽省歙 (Shè)县人,中国人民教育家、思想家,伟大的民主主义战士。提出了“生活即教育”、“社会即学校”、“教学做合一”三大主张,生活教育理论是陶行知教育思想的理论核心。著作有:《中国教育改造》、《古庙敲钟录》、《斋夫自由谈》、《行知书信》、《行知诗歌集》。选入课文《创造宣言》。


89、原名谢婉莹·著名女作家。所学课文诗集《繁星》、《春水》,散文集《寄小读者》、《樱花赞》等。用格言式诗句咏唱母爱、童真、大海。散文也表现"爱的哲学",被誉为"美文"的代表。所学课文《散文诗二首》之一《荷叶.母亲》。 
90、顾颉(jié)刚,字铭坚,笔名有余毅、铭坚等。江苏苏州人。中国现代著名历史学家、民俗学家,古史辨学派创始人,现代历史地理学和民俗学的开拓者、奠基人。所学课文《怀疑与学问》。 


91、闻一多,本名闻家骅,字友三,生于湖北省黄冈市浠水县,中国现代伟大的爱国主义者,坚定的民主战士,中国民主同盟早期领导人,新月派代表诗人和学者。 选入课文:《最后一次讲演》


92、艾青,原名蒋海澄,著名诗人。他的作品标志着"五四"以后自由体诗发展的一个重要阶段,又给以后的新诗创作带来很大影响。所学课文《我爱这土地》

93、余光中,出生于南京,后移居台湾,诗人、散文家。所学课文《乡愁》。 


94、陈毅,无产阶级革命家、政治家、军事家、外交家、诗人,中华人民共和国十大元帅之一。1977年其遗作专集《陈毅诗词选集》出版。选入课文《梅岭三章》。


95、沈尹默 原名君默,杰出的学者、诗人、书法家。“五四”运动时期,作为北大名教授,和鲁迅、陈独秀等人轮流主编《新青年》杂志,代表作《月夜》《落叶》《三弦》等。选入课文:《短诗五首》之《月夜》


96、戴望舒,现代著名诗人。出版第一本诗集中《雨巷》传诵一时,因此而有“雨巷诗人”之誉。1941年底被日寇逮捕入狱。在狱中写下《狱中题壁》《我用残损的手掌》《等待》等著名诗篇。选入课文:《短诗五首》之《萧红墓畔口占》

97、卞之琳,生于江苏海门汤家镇,现当代诗人(“汉园三诗人”之一)、文学评论家、翻译家。被公认为是新文化运动中重要的诗歌流派新月派和现代派的代表诗人。选入课文:《短诗五首》之《断章》


98、芦荻,1912年生,现代诗人。原名陈培迪,生于广东南海。曾与人合编刊物。1956年加入中国作家协会,后任暨南大学教授。著有诗集《桑野》《驰驱集》《芦荻诗选》等,亦有诗歌理论、鉴赏文章和著作行世。选入课文:《短诗五首》之《风雨吟》


99、聂鲁达,智利著名诗人。13岁开始发表诗作,1923年发表第一部诗集《黄昏》,1924年发表成名作《二十首情诗和一支绝望的歌》,自此登上智利诗坛。聂鲁达的一生有两个主题,一个是政治,另一个是爱情。选入课文:《短诗五首》之《统一》


100、秋瑾,原名闺谨,字璇卿,自号竞雄,别号鉴湖女侠,汉侠女儿。中国女权和女学思想的倡导者,近代民主革命志士。1907年7月15日凌晨,秋瑾从容就义于绍兴轩亭口,年仅32岁。选入课文:《满江红》(小住京华)


101、马南邨,原名邓拓 、邓子建、邓云特。笔名马南邨、于遂安、卜无忌等。主要著作有《中国救荒史》、《燕山夜话》、《论中国的几个问题》等。选入课文:《不求甚解》

102、朱光潜,现代美学家、文艺理论家,安徽桐城人。朱光潜是我国现代美学的开拓者和奠基者之一,也是第一个在中国广泛介绍西方美学的人。选入课文:《无言之美》


103、李可染 江苏徐州人。中国近代杰出的画家、诗人,画家齐白石的弟子。72岁任中国美术家协会副主席、中国画研究院院长。晚年用笔趋于老辣。擅长画山水、人物,尤其擅长画牛。选入课文:《山水画的意境》
 (十一)当代 


104、史铁生,当代作家,生于北京,代表作有小说集《我的遥远的清平湾》《命若琴弦》《务虚笔记》;散文集《我与地坛》《合欢树》《病隙碎笔》等。所学课文《秋天的怀念》


105、莫怀戚,重庆作家。我和妻子都是慢慢地,稳稳地,走得很仔细,好像我背上的同她背上的加起来就是整个世界。深化了文章的中心,表现了中华民族尊老爱幼的传统美德。 人物描写的基本方法:外貌描写、语言描写、动作描写、心理描写。


ú106、郑振铎,现代作家,翻译家,文学史家。所学课文《猫》


袁珂,四川新都人,神话学家,著有《中国古代神话》《山海经校注》等。所学课文《女娲造人》


107、杨绛,江苏无锡人,作家、翻译家。代表作《干校六记》、译作《堂吉诃德》 等。所学课文 :《老王》


108、贾平凹,原名贾平娃,陕西丹凤人。2008凭借《秦腔》获得第七届茅盾文学奖所学课文  《一颗小桃树》


109、贺敬之。现代著名革命诗人、剧作家。1945年,他和丁毅执笔集体创作我国第一部新歌剧《白毛女》,获1951年斯大林文学奖。   所学课文《回延安》


110、刘成章,陕西延安人。他的散文集《羊想云彩》获首届鲁迅文学奖。所学课文《安塞腰鼓》是一篇歌颂激荡的生命和磅礴的力量的文章。


111、吴伯箫,原名熙成,山东莱芜人。散文家,教育家。所学课文《灯笼》


竺可桢,浙江上虞人。气象学家、地理学家。所学课文《大自然的语言》根据《科学大众》1963年第1期竺可桢的《一门丰产的科学--物候学》改写。


112、丁肇中,美籍华裔物理学家,获1976年诺贝尔物理学奖。 所学课文:《应有格物致知精神》


113、王选,江苏无锡人,计算机文字信息处理专家,被誉为“当代毕昇”。2002年获国家最高科学技术奖。由他领导研制成功的“汉字激光照排系统”为我国新闻出版业普及推广中文计算机排版做出了重大贡献。 所学课文:《我一生中的重要抉择》原题为《我一生中的八个重要抉择》


114、梁衡 ,著名学者、新闻理论家、作家。山西霍州人。 所学课文:《壶口瀑布》选自《梁衡文集》。


Œ115、马丽华, 女作家。代表作有《走进西藏》等,被誉为“西藏的歌者和行者”。所学课文:《在长江源头各拉丹冬》选自《藏北游历》


116、阿来,藏族,当代著名作家,2000年,年仅41岁的阿来凭借长篇小说《尘埃落定》荣获第五届茅盾文学奖,成为茅盾文学奖史上最年轻的获奖者。 所学课文:《一滴水经过丽江》


117穆旦(1918-1977),原名查良铮,曾用笔名梁真,祖籍浙江省海宁市袁花镇,出生于天津。现代主义诗人、翻译家。所学课文:《我看》


118、曹文轩,1954年1月出生于江苏盐城,中国儿童文学作家。1977年毕业于北京大学中文系并留校任教。    所学课文:《孤独之旅》


119、毕淑敏,选入课文《精神的三间小屋》


ド120、舒婷,原名龚佩瑜,1952年生,福建泉州人。朦胧诗派的代表作家之一。著有诗集《双桅船》(获全国第一届新诗集优秀奖)、《会唱歌的鸢尾花》《舒婷顾城抒情诗选》,散文集《心烟》。所学课文:《祖国啊,我亲爱的祖国》


お121、刘绍棠,当代作家,北京通县人,17岁就出版小说集《青枝绿叶》。《暮春》题意:点出故事发生的时间;概括文章的中心内容--在人生的暮年又青春焕发。所学课文:《蒲柳人家》 


122、宗 璞,当代女作家。《西湖的绿》(选自《宗璞小说散文集》)所学课文:《紫藤萝瀑布》 


123、阿城,原名钟阿城,1949年于清明节出生在北京,籍贯为四川江津,中国当代作家。发表小说集《棋王》,获1984年福建《中短篇小说选刊》优秀作品奖和1983-1984年全国优秀中篇小说奖。所学课文:《溜索》


124、何冀平 中国剧作家,中国文学艺术界联合会第十届全委会委员。1988年,何冀平创作的《天下第一楼》演出后轰动京城,演出场次仅次于《茶馆》,被誉为当代现实主义经典。所学课文:《天下第一楼》


(十二)外国作家 


125、泰戈尔,印度作家、诗人。作品有诗集《吉檀迦利》《新月集》《园丁集》《飞鸟集》等,获1913年诺贝尔文学奖。所学课文《散文诗二首》之一《金色花》。


126、海伦•凯勒,美国女作家,教育家。1964年被授予“总统自由勋章”。作品有《假如给我三天光明》。所学课文《再塑生命的人》


127、让•乔诺,法国作家,电影编剧。所学课文《植树的牧羊人》


128、康拉德•劳伦兹,奥地利(国别)动物行为学家,科普作家,代表作有《所罗门王的指环》《狗的家世》。获得1973年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖。所学课文《动物笑谈》


129、阿西莫夫,美国科普作家、科幻小说家。代表作有《基地》《  新疆域  》。所学课文《恐龙无处不有》《被压扁的沙子》


130、伊索,古希腊作家,善讲寓言讽刺权贵,所编寓言经后世加工结集《伊索寓言》。所学课文《赫尔墨斯和雕像者》《蚊子与狮子》


131、都德,法国19世纪著名作家。所学课文长篇小说代表作《小东西》等,短篇小说有《最后一课》、《柏林之围》等。与福楼拜、左拉、龚古尔、屠格涅夫组成文学社团"五人聚餐会"。


132、普希金,近代俄罗斯现实主义文学奠基人被誉为“俄罗斯文学之父”代表作《致大海》《自由颂》。所学课文:《假如生活欺骗了你》


133、弗罗斯特,20世纪最受欢迎的美国诗人之一。《未选择的路》选自《中外哲理诗精选》。


134、茨威格, 奥地利著名作家、小说家、传记作家,诗人家,剧作家,擅长写小说、人物传记传记文学代表作有《三位大师》《罗曼.罗兰》,小说代表作《一个陌生女人的来信》《象棋的故事》等。所学课文:《伟大的悲剧》《列夫.托尔斯泰》。


135、罗素,英国哲学家、数学家、作家。所学课文:《我为什么而活着》


136、法布尔,法国昆虫学家、作家,代表作《昆虫记》。所学课文:《蝉》


137、利奥波德,美国生态学家。所学课文:《大雁归来》选自《沙乡年鉴》。


138、顾拜旦,法国教育家、社会活动家,现代奥林匹克运动创始人。本文是他在1919年4月瑞士洛桑国际奥委会全体委员大会上发表的演讲。 所学课文:《庆祝奥林匹克运动复兴25周年》选自《奥林匹克主义——顾拜旦文选》


139、马克·吐翁,美国作家,代表作有小说《汤姆·索亚历险记》《哈克贝利·费恩历险记》。 所学课文:《登勃朗峰》选自《远处的青山》


140、雨果,法国浪漫主义作家,被称为“法兰西的莎士比亚”。主要作品有《九三年》《巴黎圣母院》《悲惨世界》。所学课文:《就英法联军远征中国致巴特勒上尉的信》


141、莫泊桑,19世纪后半叶法国批判现实主义作家,与俄国契诃夫和美国欧·亨利并称为"世界三大短篇小说巨匠"。代表作品有《项链》、《羊脂球》和《我的叔叔于勒》等。所学课文:《我的叔叔于勒》


142、·高尔基,苏联伟大的文学家,"无产阶级艺术的杰出代表"(列宁语), 著有长篇小说《母亲》,自传体三部曲《童年》、《在人间》、《我的大学》等。所学课文《海燕》 


143、安徒生,丹麦著名童话作家。他一生写有160多篇童话,如《卖火柴的小女孩》、《丑小鸭》、《海的女儿》等。所学课文《皇帝的新装》


144、契诃夫,俄国作家。主要作品有短篇小说《小公务员之死》、《变色龙》,中篇小说《第六病室》,剧本《海鸥》、《万尼亚舅舅》、《三姊妹》,是俄罗斯唯一以短篇小说创作登上世界文坛高峰的作家。所学课文《变色龙》


145、培根(Francis Bacon,1561-1626)英国著名的唯物主义哲学家、现代实验科学的始祖,作家。著有《随笔》,《新工具》等。《随笔》共58篇是英国文学中首创。所学课文《谈读书》


146、100·尼·奥斯特洛夫斯基。前苏联作家,所学课文《钢铁是怎样炼成的》。 


聊斋艳谭之战艳魔在线(十三)作品介绍 


147、"四书"、"五经":"四书"即《论语》、《大学》、《中庸》、《孟子》; "五经"为《诗》、《书》、《易》、《礼》、《春秋》。"五经"再加上《论语》、《孝经》为"七经"。 


148、《列子》:相传为战国时郑国人列御寇所作。书中还保存了一些先秦时代优秀的寓言故事和神话传说,如《愚公移山》、《歧路亡羊》等,想象丰富,清新活泼。 


149、《史记》:西汉司马迁著,我国第一部纪传体通史,原名《太史公书》,共一百三十篇,分为"八书"、"十表"、"十二本纪"、"三十世家"、"七十列传"。它记载了黄帝到汉武帝时长达三千年的历史,其人物传记开我国史传文学的先河。《史记》是古代散文史上的一座丰碑,给后人以无尽的启示和深远的影响,被鲁迅誉为"史家之绝唱,无韵之离骚"。 


150、《楚辞》:我国第一部浪漫主义诗歌总集,由于诗歌的形式是在楚国民歌的基础上加工形成,篇中又大量引用楚地的风土物产和方言词汇,所以叫"楚辞"。《楚辞》主要是屈原、宋玉等人作品,是西汉末年刘向搜集辑录而成。后人又称楚辞为"骚体"。《楚辞》对后世文学影响深远,不仅开启了后来的赋体,而且影响历代散文创作。是我国积极浪漫主义诗歌创作的源头。 


151、《吕氏春秋》:又名《吕览》,先秦杂家的代表著作,由战国末秦相吕不韦集合门客编成,全书共二十六卷。此书是一部理论散文最早的总集。 


152、《诗经》:我国第一部诗歌总集,通称为《诗》或《诗三百》,到了汉代,儒家奉它为"经",才称《诗经》,共305篇,分为"风"、"雅"、"颂"三部分,《诗经》是我国诗歌现实主义优良传统的源头,其思想内容和艺术成就,对我国文学,尤其是诗歌的发展有着深广的影响。诗歌的形成以四言为主,多数为隔句用韵,并普遍运用"赋"、"比"、"兴"的表现手法,在章法上具有重章叠句反复咏唱的特点。所学课文:《关雎》(周南)《蒹葭》(秦风)《式微》(邶风)《子衿》(郑风)


153、《古诗十九首》:无名氏作,它继承了乐府民歌中抒情诗的技巧,又吸收了《诗经》、《楚辞》的营养,用自然、朴素的语言表达深挚的感情,它代表了汉代五言诗的艺术高峰。 选入课文:《庭中有奇树》


154、《礼记》,战国至秦汉间儒家论著的汇编,相传是西汉经学家戴圣编纂的。选入课文:《虽有佳肴》《大道之行也》
155、《左传》:是我国第一部叙事详细、完整的编年体史书。原名《左氏春秋》、又称《春秋左氏传》,相传为鲁国史官左丘明所著。《左传》具有很高的文学价值,对后世影响很大,不仅在历史著作的撰写方面作出了光辉的榜样,还为散文的叙事,议论和小说、戏剧的题材提供了丰富的养料。 


156、《晏子春秋》:记载齐国晏婴言行轶事的著作。在一定程度上真实反映了当时社会现实,文章有较浓厚的文学色彩。 


157、《乐府诗集》:诗集名,宋郭茂倩编,辑录了汉魏至唐五代的乐府歌辞。有民歌作文人创作,也有仿作。 


158、《三国志》:西晋陈寿著。是一部纪传体分国史。分《魏志》《蜀志》《吴志》共三十八卷。 


159、《春秋三传》:指《春秋左氏传》、《公羊传》、《谷梁传》。 


160、《汉书》,东汉班固撰,是我国第一部纪传体断代史,全书共一百篇,体制承袭《史记》,但又有变,分为"八表"、"十志"、"十二本纪"、"七十列传",它记述了自汉高祖元年至王莽共二百二十九年的历史。其成就亦很高,对后来的断代史产生了很大影响。 


161、《论语》:儒家经典著作之一,孔子弟子及再传弟子编篡,主要记述孔子言行,孔子答弟子和当时人的话,也有弟子互相谈论他们听到的孔子的话。全书以记言为主,是一部语录体著作。 


162、《资治通鉴》:宋司马光主持编写的我国最大的一部编年体通史,它综合了各朝"纪传体"断代史的成果,把上起战国,下至五代长达一千三百六十多年的历史,以年月为经,史实为纬,依时代顺序贯通起来叙述。书名意思是"鉴于人事,资于治道",即吸收历代兴衰成败的经验教训,作为封建统治者治理国家、人民的借鉴。 


163、《战国策》:是西汉刘向根据战国史书整理编辑的,共33篇,分国编次,是一部国别体史学著作,又称《国策》。
164、《西游记》:是我国古代著名的浪漫主义的长篇神话小说,全书共一百回,取材于唐僧取经的故事,刻画了孙悟空的形象,表现了他蔑视权威,不畏强暴,除恶务尽的战斗精神,可以说,整部书是孙悟空的战斗史。 


165、《三国演义》是我国最早的一部章回体长篇历史小说,全称《三国志通俗演义》,罗贯中著。它是我国历史小说的开山之作,艺术上的突出成就是战争描写。 


166、永州八记:唐代柳宗元所写的有连续性的山水游记,共八篇,后人称为《永州八记》,其中《小石潭记》最有名。


167、《水浒传》:是我国古代描写农民革命斗争的著名长篇白话章回体小说,又名《忠义水浒传》,全书以北宋末年宋江所领导的农民起义为题材,明确地提出了"替天行道"的斗争纲领,塑造了一百零八名梁山好汉的英雄形象,揭示了封建社会"官逼民反"的客观真理,也真实描述了封建社会中农民革命必然遭到失败的历史悲剧。 

❀㉯

168、《儒林外史》:是我国古代优秀的长篇讽刺小说,吴敬梓著,全书共五十四回,由许多彼此独立的故事连缀而成,主要内容是批判各种类型的封建士大夫的功名利禄观念,着重抨击科举制度,刻画士人的种种丑态,暴露封建社会的黑暗和腐朽。在艺术上,讽刺手法超过了以前任何作品。 


169、风骚:《诗经》和《楚辞》的并称。《诗经》中的《国风》,《楚辞》中的《离骚》,都是古代作品,对后代文学很有影响,故常以"风骚"并举,后来"风骚"直接指代《诗经》、《楚辞》。 


170、《红楼梦》:又名《石头记》,是我国最伟大的长篇小说。共一百二十回,全书以贾宝玉、林黛玉的爱情悲剧为主线,通过贾府的兴衰历史的叙述,揭露了封建家族的荒淫、腐败,揭示了封建制度濒于崩溃和必然灭亡的命运。 


171、《伊索寓言》,古希腊寓言集。所选课文《赫耳墨斯和雕像者》。 


172、《克雷洛夫寓言集》,作者克雷洛夫,俄国著名寓言家。 


173、《天方夜谭》,又名《一千零一夜》,古代阿拉伯民间故事集,课文《渔夫的故事》出自此。 


(十四)综合常识 


174、民间故事:是一种立足于现实而富有幻想的口头文学作品,有四个特点:A完整的故事情节B鲜明的人物性格C语言口语化D富有生活气息和地方色彩。 


中国四大民间故事:《白蛇传》、《牛郎织女》、《孟姜女》、《梁祝传奇》。 


175、神话:指反映古代人们对世界起源、自然现象和社会生活的理解,并通过超自然的形象和幻想的形式来表现的故事和传说。神话最大的特点就是借助想象来表达古代人民征服自然力的理想和追求。


中国神话,多见于《山海经》:我国地理名著。内容多为古代民间传说中的地理知识。其中保存了大量远古神话传说,如"黄帝战尤"、"精卫填海"、"夸父追日"等。 


中国常见的神话故事:女娲造人、盘古开天、嫦娥奔月、后羿射日等。 


西方神话,多为希腊神话。相关神话人物: 


(1)宙斯(罗马神话称为朱庇特),希腊神话中最高的天神,掌管雷电云雨,是人和神的主宰。 


(2)阿波罗,希腊神话中宙斯的儿子,主管光明、青春、音乐、诗歌等,常以手持弓箭的又少年形象出现。 


(3)雅典娜,希腊神话中智慧女神,雅典城邦的保护神。 


(4)潘多拉,希腊神话中的第一个女人。貌美性诈,私自打开宙斯送她的一只盒子,里面装的疾病、疯狂、罪恶、嫉妒等祸患,一齐飞出,只有"希望"留在盒底,人间因此充满灾难。"潘多拉的盒子"成为"祸灾的来源"的同义语。


(5)普罗米修斯,希腊神话中造福人间的神。盗取天火带到人间,并传授给人类多种手艺,触怒宙斯,被锁在高加索山崖,受神鹰啄食。是一个反抗强暴、不惜为人类牺牲一切的英雄。 


(6)斯芬克司,希腊神话中的狮身女怪。常叫过路行人猜谜,猜不出即将行人杀害;后因谜底被俄底浦斯道破,即自杀。后常喻"谜"一样的人物。埃及狮身人面像同名。 


176、传记,又叫人物传记,是记述人物生平事迹的一种应用文,体裁属于记叙文样式的一种。传记分两类:自传和他传。主要特点:"实录"。表达方式:记事为主,兼插议论。 


177、四大文学体裁,小说、散文、诗歌、戏剧。 


178、戏剧,是一种以表演艺术为中心的综合艺术。主要特点a尖锐的矛盾冲突;b人物、场景、情节高度集中;c人物语言个性化、行动化和口语化; 戏剧包括话剧、歌剧、舞剧。 


舞台说明,戏剧剧本中说明性的文字叫"舞台说明",内容包括时间、地点、服装、道具、布景以及人物的表情、动作、上下场等。 作用:a刻画人物性格b展开故事情节 


ɪ179、小说,是以刻画人物形象为中心,通过完整的故事情节和具体的环境描写来反映社会生活的文学体裁。小说三要素:人物、情节、环境。小说中的人和事,不同于生活中的人和事(记叙文几种样式中的人和事)。如鲁迅小说《故乡》中的人物"我"就不能等同于作者鲁迅。 


小说结构一般分为开端、发展、高潮、结局几个部分。 


根据小说的篇幅容量,一般分为长篇、中篇、短篇小说三类,篇幅特别短小的叫微型小说。 


小说为塑造人物形象常用的手法:描写。描写分:语言描写、行动描写、外貌描写、心理描写等,此外,还运用细节描写和白描手法来刻画人物。 


在塑造人物上还交替运用正面描写和侧面描写。如《孔乙己》。 


此外,小说还运用环境描写(自然环境、社会环境)。 


环境描写作用:a烘托人物性格b推动情节发展c交代时代背景d渲染气氛 


180、散文,是一种篇幅短小,形式自由,能迅速反映社会生活的文学体裁。散文不要求有完整的故事情节,应用范围最广泛,语言表达方式更灵活,记叙、描写、议论、抒情、说明,无所不可。"形散而神不散"是散文结构的主要特点。根据散文表达方式的侧重点,可分抒情性散文、叙事性散文、议论性散文三类。 


ɜː181、通讯,对现实生活中的典型人物和事件进行具体报道的叫通讯。 


通讯分事件通讯和人物通讯。事件通讯如《扶摇直上九天》、《抢财神》。 


人物通讯如《永不后悔的选择》、《草莽英雄》。 


182、新闻,包括标题、导语、主体三个部分。标题通常是新闻内容的提要,导语是事件或事件中心的概述,主体介绍有关情况或进一步突出中心。 


新闻标题可由:引题(交代基本情况,烘托气氛)


正题(表示主要事实和中心) 


Κ

副题(对正题作补充说明)三部分组成。 


183、特写,特写是报告文学的一种,它截取人物或事件的某个片段,细致地加以描述,如《苦练》。 


184、书信,分两类,日常书信和专用书信。专用书信。指的是生活书信以外的各种社交书信,如慰问信、祝贺信、介绍信、求荐信、商业书信(商务信函、营业申请书)等。 


185、计划,计划三要素:目标、措施、步骤。 


条文式计划结构的三个组成部分:标题、正文、结尾。


186、总结的三个组成部分:标题、正文、署名和日期。 
正文四方面内容:基本情况概述,主要成绩和经验,存在问题和教训,今后努力方向。 


187、古代几种常用文体: 


(1)说--一种文体,可以记叙,可以议论,也可以抒情,但都是为了说理。如《爱莲说》、《捕蛇者说》、《马说》。


(2)铭--本是刻在金属器物或石碑上用来警戒自己或颂扬他人的韵文,后来成为一种专门文体。如《陋室铭》。 


(3)表--古时臣下向帝王上书言事的一种文体,可议论,也可以记叙和抒情,如《出师表》。 


(4)记--记是记叙事物的文章,记以叙事、写景、状物成分居多,但目的在于抒发作者的感情和抱负或阐述作者对问题的看法。如《桃花源记》、《岳阳楼记》、《醉翁亭记》。


188、三春--指正月孟春、二月仲春、三月季春。


189、兄弟排行--伯、仲、叔、季。 


190、古代八音--金、石、土、草、丝、木、竹、匏(páo,笙竽)八类。 


191、中国四大古典小说:《西游记》、《三国演义》、《水浒》、《红楼梦》。 


192、五谷--菽、麦、稻、谷、稷。 


193、三苏--苏洵、苏轼、苏辙。 


194、三曹--曹操、曹丕、曹植。 


195、诗歌分类:按照表达方式分--抒情诗、叙事诗、哲理诗。 


按照体裁分--古体诗(古代诗歌)、近体诗(包括绝句、律诗、词、曲)、新诗(包括散文诗、现代诗歌)。 


律诗特点:每首八句,两句一联,依次叫首联、颔联、颈联、尾联。中间两联一般对仗,偶数句压韵,第一句可以压韵,也可以不押韵。 


(十五)中学语文课文名胜对联辑录 


  1·滁州醉翁亭:翁去八百年,醉乡犹在;山行六七里,亭影不孤。


  2·湖南岳阳楼:四面湖山归眼底;万家忧乐到心头。


  3·成都杜甫草堂:草堂留后世;诗圣著千秋。 


  4·洞庭月,衡岳云,巫山雨,波撼气蒸,揽天下风光,堪称独步;崔灏诗,范相记,王勃序,两楼一阁,数江南文物,各有千秋。-- (《黄鹤楼诗》《岳阳楼记》《滕王阁序》 )


(十六)与课文相关的名家颂对联辑录 


1·集群圣之大成,振玉声金,道通中外;立万世之师表,存神过化,德合乾坤。--颂孔子 


2·何处招魂,香草还生三户地;当年呵壁,湘流应识九歌心。---颂屈原 


3·金石文章空八代,江山姓氏著千秋。--颂韩愈 


4·韩潮学派百三汇,公起文章八代衰。--颂韩愈 


‥5·兵甲富于胸中,一代功名高宋室;忧乐关乎天下,千秋俎豆重苏台。--颂范仲淹 


6·犹留正气参天地,永剩丹心照古今。--颂文天祥 


7·宰相状元余事之,文章义节两兼之。--颂文天祥 


8·铁板铜琶,继东坡高唱大江东去;美芹悲黍,冀南宋莫随鸿雁南飞。--颂辛弃疾 


9·有志者事竞成,破釜沉舟,百二秦关终属楚;苦心人天不负,卧薪尝胆,三千越甲可吞吴。 --蒲松龄撰联颂项羽、勾践 
    
10·一代君权痛蚕室,千秋史笔溯龙门。--颂司马迁 
◎  
11·刚正不阿,留得正气凌霄汉;幽而发愤,著成信史照尘寰。---颂司马迁 


12·质而绮,真且醇,自可传之千古;樽中酒,篱下诗,岂甘了此一生。--颂陶渊明 


13·大明湖畔,趵突泉边,故居在绿杨深处;漱玉集中,金石录里,文采有后主遗风。--颂李清照 


14·酌酒花间,磨针石上;倚剑天外,挂弓扶桑。--颂李白 
  
15·盛唐诗酒无双士,青莲文苑第一家。--颂李白 
  
16·缅想忠贞,补阙拾遗犹昨事;何来环佩,清辉香雾替诗魂。--颂杜甫 


17·世上疮痍,诗中圣哲;民间疾苦,笔底波澜。--颂社甫 
  
18·诗史数千言,秋天一鹄先生骨;草堂三五里,春水群鸥野老心。---颂杜甫 
  
19·笔诤时政,心在苍生,万户争传新乐府;堤建西湖,神归东洛,千秋永祀老诗翁。--颂白居易 
  
20·枫叶四弦秋,棖触天涯迁谪恨;浔阳千尺水,勾留江上别离情。--颂白居易 
  
21·王业不偏安,两表于今悬日月;臣言当尽瘁,六军长此驻风云。--颂诸葛亮 
  
22·宦游西蜀,志复中原,高吟铁马铜驼,烟尘誓扫还金阙;诗继少陵,派开南宋,更入清风明月,池馆重新接草堂。--颂陆游 
  
23·文官不爱钱,武官不惜死,果如公言,宋室何至南渡;罪名莫须有,忠冢栖霞山,长留人愿,国魂几时北来。--颂岳飞 
  
24·写鬼写妖高人一等,刺贪刺虐入骨三分。--颂蒲松龄 
 ✘; 
25·著作最谨严,岂徒中国小说史;遗言犹沉痛,莫作空头文学家。--颂鲁迅 


26·萃父子兄弟于一门,八家唐宋占三席;悟骈散诗词之特征,千变纵横识其源。--颂三苏父子 


27·译著尚未成功,惊闻殒星,中国何人领呐喊;先生已经作古,痛忆旧雨,文坛从此感彷徨。--美国作家斯诺与剧作家姚运合写的悼念鲁迅的挽联 


28·唐代论诗人,李杜以远,惟有几篇新乐府;苏州怀刺史,湖山之边,尚有三庙旧祠堂。--诵白居易 


29· 收二川,排八阵,六出七擒,五丈原前,点四十九盏明灯,一心只为酬三顾。 


去西蜀,定南蛮,东和北拒,中军帐里,变金木土爻神卦,水面偏能用火攻。--颂诸葛亮 


三顾:三顾茅庐 , 六出:六出祁山,  七擒:七擒孟获 ,东和:东和孙吴, 


北拒:北拒曹魏,  收二川:收取东川西川 , 排八阵:摆设八阵图 


[Junior High School Language] General Knowledge of Chinese and Literature in the Senior High School Entrance Examination (1) The Spring and Autumn Erau0026nbsp;1, Confucius, Mingqiu, Zi Zhongni, also known as Nifu, Holy Father, a native of Lu, the founder of Confucianism. The book was compiled for Confucius disciples and their subsequent disciples. The 20 chapters of The Analects of Confucius are used as the title of each text, such as Xueer and Weizheng. It records the words and deeds of Confucius and his disciples, and represents the basic ideas of Confucius. Zhuzis philosophical prose, quotation style, listed as one of the Four Books (The Daxue, The Doctrine of the Mean, The Analects of Confucius and Mencius). u0026nbsp;The text you have learned u0026lt;The Analectsu0026gt;Twelve Chaptersu0026nbsp; u0026nbsp;2, Zuo Qiuming, historian of the State of Lu. The text studied Zuo Zhuan, Chun Qiu Zuo Shi Zhuan is also known as Zuo Shi Chun Qiu. The Battle of Cao Kui, The Battle of Cao Wei, The Battle of Wei, The Wu of the Candle Retreat from the Qin Master, etc. are selected from this book. my countrys first chronological history book with detailed narrative, historical prose. It records historical facts during the Spring and Autumn Period and is full of literature. The text Cao Kui Lunzhan (2) The Warring States Periodu0026nbsp;3. Mencius, named Ke, Ziyu, a representative of Confucianism during the Warring States period, is known as the sub-sage in the world. The book is edited by his disciples. Records Menciuss ideological and political speech. Zhuzi philosophical prose, one of the Four Books. Mencius was good at argumentation and used metaphors well, which had a greater influence on the development of later generations of argumentative prose. The two texts studied Mencius, each take the first few words of the text as the title, Wealth cannot be prostitious, Born in sorrow and die in peace, Fish I want what I want. u0026nbsp;4. Liezi, named Yukou, a predecessor of Taoism. The text Liezi is also known as Chongxu Zhenjing. The philosophical prose of the philosophers. The texts studied The Qiren Worrying about the Sky The Foolish Old Man Moves the Mountain 5. Zhuangzi. Famous Zhou, known as the Nanhua real person in the world, and a representative figure of Taoism. There are 33 existing texts, Zhuangzi, also known as South China Sutra. The philosophical prose of Zhuzi has a strong romantic color and has a great influence on the literature of later generations. Texts learned: There are fish in the North Ming Zhuangzi and Huizi swim on Haoliang. 6. Lu Buwei, Qin Xiang, gathered together and compiled Lu Shi Chun Qiu. The text Lu Shi Chun Qiu. Also known as Lu Lan, there are 160 articles in total. Included in philosophical essays by scholars, representative works of miscellaneous scholars. The text to be learned: One person through the well 7. Qu Yuan, named Ping. my countrys first patriotic and romantic poet, created a new poetic style of Chuci, and was listed as a world cultural celebrity. The texts studied Li Sao, Nine Songs (including 11 chapters such as Mountain Ghost and Guo Shang), Heaven Questions, Nine Chapters (including u0026nbsp;Shejiang, Sorrow, Orange Song 9 articles). In the Western Han Dynasty, Liu Xiang compiled the book Chu Ci, with Qu as the main subject. It was called Chu Ci because of its strong local flavor of the Chu country. Later generations called this style of poetry Chu Ci Style and Sao Style. Created the romantic tradition of poetry in our country. The national customs in Lisao and The Book of Songs are called fengsao and become synonymous with literature. (3) Two Hansu0026nbsp; u0026nbsp;8, Sima Qian·Zizichang, also known as Taishigong, referred to as Shiqian. Together with Sima Guang, they are called two Sima in history, and Ban Ma with Ban Gu. The text Historical Records, also known as Tai Shi Gong Shu, contains 130 chapters, including 12 chronicles, 8 books, 10 tables, 30 families, and 70 biographies. Historical prose. my countrys first general history of biographical styles, pioneering five styles of this period, aristocratic family, biographies, tables, and books, is known as factual records, faithful history. The swan song of the historian, the Li Sao without rhyme, one of the Shuangbi of historiography, the first of the former Three History. The text studied: Zhou Yafu Jun Xiliu. 9. Liu Xiang, compiled and edited the national style history book Warring States Policy based on the history books of the Warring States Period. The texts studied: Tang Jus Mission Not Disgraced, Zou Ji satirizes the King of Qi for admonition. 10. A compilation of Book of Rites from the Warring States Period to the Qin and Han Dynasties, according to legend, it was compiled by Dai Sheng, a scholar of Western Han Dynasty. There are forty-nine chapters such as Qu Li, Tan Gong, Wang Zhi, Yue Ling, Li Yun, Xue Ji, Yue Ji, The Doctrine of the Mean and University. The texts learned: Although there are delicacies from Book of Rites. Learning Records; A Trip to the Great Avenue from Books of Rites. Li Yun. (4) Three Kingdoms, Two Jins, Southern and Northern Dynasties 11, Yuefu, the texts Fifteen Military Expeditions and Peacocks Fly Southeastward. The former can be seen in the Yuefu Poetry Collection compiled by Guo Maoqian in the Song Dynasty, and the latter can be seen in the New Odes of the Jade Terrace compiled by Xu Ling in the Southern Dynasty. Among them, The Peacock Flies to the Southeast is the longest narrative poem in ancient my country. Together with Mulan Poetry, it is called Yuefu Shuangbi. The texts learned: Fifteen Military Expeditions and Mulan Poems. u0026nbsp;12. Cao Cao, whose nickname is Aman, whose word is Meng De, is the emperor Wu, the head of the Three Cao. The text learned The Collection of Emperor Wei Wu. It is a song of Yuefu. Create a new style of Jianan Vigor. Lu Xun called him a master of reforming articles. The texts studied are Turtle Although Shou, Viewing the Canghai and so on. 13. Shi Shuo Xin Yu mainly records the talks and anecdotes of scholar-officials from the end of Han Dynasty to the Eastern Jin Dynasty. It was compiled by a group of literati organized by the Southern Dynasty Song writer Liu Yiqing. The texts studied Snow Song, Chen Taiqiu and Friends of the Period 14. Zhuge Liang, the word Kong Ming, nicknamed Wolong, Shu Han statesman and military strategist in the Three Kingdoms period, Fengwu Xianghou. There is The Collection of Zhuge Liang, the texts The Book of Commandments and The List of Masters 15. Li Daoyuan, a geographer in the Northern Wei Dynasty, wrote 40 volumes of Shui Jing Zhu. Shui Jing Zhu is called the annotation Shui Jing, but in fact it takes Shui Jing as the outline, and it is widely supplemented and developed. It is a masterpiece of ancient geography in my country and has high literary value. The texts studied: Three Gorges 16. Tao Hongjing, self-named Huayang Seclusion, a Taoist thinker in the Qiliang Period of the Southern Dynasties, has Tao Seclusion Collection. Texts learned: Acknowledgement in Chinese Books 17. Wu Jun, a writer of the Liang Dynasty in the Southern Dynasties. This article is selected from Wu Junji Proofreading. The text to be learned: Sci-Books with Zhu Yuan 18. Liu Zhen, the word Gonggan. Poet at the end of Eastern Han Dynasty, one of the Seven Sons of Jianan. The text Gift to the younger brother. u0026nbsp;19. Tao Yuanming, a potential, bright character, self-named Mr. Wuliu, posthumous posthumous title, my country’s first outstanding idyllic poet. There are representative works of Tao Yuanming Collection, such as The Story of Peach Blossom Spring, Returning and Coming, Returning to the Garden, Drinking and so on. u0026nbsp;20. Cao Zhi, with the word Zijian, named Chen Wang, posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous thinking. Representative works include Yellow Bird, Seven Step Poems and Luo Shen Fu. The texts studied: Liang Fuxing (5) Tang u0026nbsp; 21. Wang Bo, with the word Zian, one of the Four Heroes of the Early Tang Dynasty (the other three are Wang Luo Bin, Lu Zhaolin, and Yang Jiong). The author of Prince Anji. He has the highest achievement among the Four Masters. The text Send Du Shaofu to Shuzhou 22. Cui Hao, the text Yellow Crane Tower 23 from Bianzhou (Kaifeng, Henan), Wang Wan, a poet in the Tang Dynasty. The text Cibeigu under the mountain, the road outside the green hills, before the green water. u0026nbsp;24. Wang Ji, Wu Gong, a native of Jiangzhou Longmen, a poet in the Tang Dynasty. The text Yewangu0026nbsp;25. Chen Ziang, written by Boyu, born in Shehong, Zizhou (now Sichuan)u0026nbsp;, a writer in the Tang Dynasty. His poem marked the vigor of the Han and Wei dynasties, emphasizing Xingji and opposing softness. wind. Known as Poetry Bone. The text Dengyouzhou Taiwan Song 26. Meng Haoran, from Xiangyang. The first person to write a large number of landscape poems in the Tang Dynasty was as famous as Wang Wei and was called Wang Meng in the world. Author of Meng Xiangyang Collection. The text learned Looking at Dongting Lake as a Gift to Prime Minister Zhang. u0026nbsp;27Wang Changling, whose name is Shaobo, is from Jiangning. Served as Longbiaowei, the worlds king of Longbiao, Qijue Sage. The texts learned are Leaving the Fortress and Joining the Army. Later generations included Wang Changling Collection, poems about the frontier fortress, and poems about palace resentment. u0026nbsp;28. Wang Wei, whose word is Mojie, is called Wang Youcheng in the official Zhishang Shu Youcheng, and he believes in Buddhism and is called Poetry Buddha. Together with Meng Haoran, he is the representative of the Pastoral School of the Tang Dynasty, and called Wangmeng Su Shizan as there are paintings in poems and there are poems in paintings. Author of Wang Youcheng Collection, texts learned: Zhuli Pavilion, Shi Zhishang. u0026nbsp;29. Chang Jian, may be from Changan, Kaiyuan Jinshi, the text he studied: Tiposhan Temple Back Buddhist Temple. 30. Li Bai, whose word is Taibai, is also known as the Shixian. Same name as Du Fu, known as Li Du. One of the three major poets of the Tang Dynasty. There is Anthology of Li Taibai, which belongs to the romanticism, bold and unconstrained school, the high bee of classical poetry art. Han Yu praised: Li Dus article is here, and the glory is long. The texts he learned Wen Wang Changling left to move to the left and the dragon mark is sent here, Emei Mountain Moon Song, Spring Night Luocheng Wen Flute, Farewell to Jingmen , Send a Friend, Difficulties in Traveling. 31. Du Fu, whose name is Zimei, claims to be Shaoling Yelao. He once served as Zuo Supplements and a member of the Inspection School Engineering Department. He is also known as Du Supplements and Du Engineering Department. Same name as Li Bai, known as Poem Saint. One of the three major poets of the Tang Dynasty. Famous articles include Three Officials (Xinan Officials, Shihao Officials, Tongguan Officials), San Bie (New Marriage, Farewell to Old People, Farewell without Family), etc. There is Du Gong Department Collection. The peak of the art of realistic poetry is called the history of poetry. The Yuefu poem, which created the famous memorial piece, directly promoted the new Yuefu movement led by Bai Juyi. The texts studied Jiangnan meets Li Guinian, Wangyue, Spring Hope, The Thatched House is Broken by the Autumn Wind, Moonnight Recalling His Brother 32. Cen Shen, once served as the governor of Jiazhou, known as Cen Jiazhou in the world. An important representative of the frontier fortress poetry school, author of Cen Jiazhou Poems. The texts he learned are Nine Days of March, Thinking of Changan Hometown, Envoys to Beijing, Bai Xuege Sending Military Adjudicators Back to Beijing and so on. u0026nbsp;33. Han Yu, the word retired, the posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous name of the official to the official department, known as the Han official department, Han Wengong, the county Wangchangli, also known as Han Changli. Advocate of the ancient prose movement in Tang Dynasty and the first of the eight great masters in Tang and Song Dynasty. Together with Liu Zongyuan, he is called Han Liu. He advocates restoring the tradition of prose in the pre-Qin and Han dynasties, abandoning the arrogant essays since the Southern and Northern Dynasties; advocating the enrichment of the content of the essays, and the only thing to do is to do with the words. In the creation of poetry, he advocates using essays as poetry and strives for novelty. Author of the texts learned in The Collection of Mr. Changli: Late Spring, Ma Shuo, Moving Left to Languan Shows Nephew Sun Xiang. u0026nbsp;34. Liu Changqingu0026nbsp;Zi Wenfang, Han nationality, from Xuancheng (now Anhui), poet in Tang Dynasty. Liu Changqings masterpiece The Master of Furong Mountain in Every Snow. The texts studied: Changsha Gone in Jia Yis House 35. Liu Yuxi, Zi Mengde, former guest of the prince, is known as Liu Binke in the world. Together with Liu Zongyuan, it is called Liu Liu, and with Bai Juyi, it is called Liu Bai. There are Collections of Liu Binke and Collections of Liu Mengde. The texts studied Autumn Ci, The Inscription of the Shao Shi, Remuneration for Letian, See You at the First Meeting in Yangzhou 36. Bai Juyi, the word Letian. No. Xiangshan layman. The main advocate of the New Yuefu Movement in the Mid-Tang Dynasty and one of the three major poets in the Tang Dynasty, he was collectively known as Yuan Bai with Yuan Zhen. . He is the inheritor of the realist tradition, advocating that articles are combined into time and songs and poems are combined into things. The representative of the popular school, according to legend, the old woman can understand. Self-edited as Bai Shi Changqing Ji (later later compiled as Baixiangshan Poetry Collection) and learned texts Qiantang Lake Spring Trip and Sale Tan Weng 37. Liu Zongyuan, with thick characters, because he belonged to Hedong, known by his own name Liu Hedong, once served as the governor of Liuzhou, also known as Liuliuzhou. One of the leaders of the ancient prose movement in the Tang Dynasty, and Han Yu was also called Han Liu. One of the Eight Masters. The texts studied are Snake Catcher Theory, Three Commandments (including The Ass of Guizhou), Eight Notes of Yongzhou (including prose of Xiaoshitan Ji, Shiqu Ji, etc.). There are also poems such as The Fisherman and Jiang Xue. Author of Liu Hedong Collection. He was the first writer in my country to formally write fables as independent literary works, opening up a new stage in the development of Chinese ancient fable literature. The texts learned are The Story of Xiaoshitan, Childrens Area Mailing Biography. 38. Wen Tingyun (approximately 812-866), poet and poet of the Tang Dynasty. His real name is Qi, and the word is Feiqing, from Taiyuan Qi (now southeast of Qixian County, Shanxi). Wen Tingyun is proficient in melody, poetry, and words. His poems are gorgeous and exquisite. They were called Wen Li with Li Shangyin. His poems pay attention to the literary and sound of the words. There are more than 70 poems in existence today, which are included in Hua Jian Ji, Jin Quan Ci and other books. , Is revered as the originator of Huajian Ci School, and is called Wen Wei together with Wei Zhuang. The text Early Trip to Shangshan. 39. Li He, the word is long lucky. His works have peculiar imagination, magnificent words, romanticism, and unique style. Known as Poetry Ghostu0026nbsp;, author of Changgu Ji. u0026nbsp;The text you have learned is Yanmen Prefect Xing. 40. Du Mu, the word Muzhi, is also called Xiaodu, and is the same name as Li Shangyin, and is also called Little Li Du. In his later years, he lived in Fanchuan Villa, named Du Fanchuan. He is particularly good at all kinds of disciplines. The prose cultural tendency of Fu Zuo has a greater influence on later generations, and he is the author of Fan Chuan Poetry Collection Notes. The text you have learned Red Cliffu0026nbsp;. 41. Li Shangyin, named Yishan, named Yuxisheng, and also named Fannansheng. He is the author of Li Yishans Poems and Fan Nans Collected Works. The texts studied Send to the North by Night Rain, Jia Sheng, Untitled, etc. Untitled poems mostly take love as the theme, lingering beauty, and having a great influence on future generations. u0026nbsp;42. Xu Hun (approximately 791~approximately 858), the character is Hui (a Zhonghui), a poet of the Tang Dynasty, born in Danyang, Runzhou (now Danyang, Jiangsu). One of the most influential poets in the late Tang Dynasty learned a text: Xianyang City East Building. (6) Songu0026nbsp;43, Fan Zhongyan, word Xiwen, posthumous title Wenzheng, Northern Song Dynasty (Dynasty) statesman, military strategist, and writer. He is the author of The Collection of Fan Wenzheng Gong, the texts he learned The Story of Yueyang Tower, The Pride of the Fisherman and so on. u0026nbsp;44. Ouyang Xiu, Zi Yongshu, No. Zuiweng, Liuyijushi, posthumous name Wenzhong. Leader of the Northern Song literary circle, one of the Eight Great Masters of Tang and Song Dynastiesu0026nbsp;(Han Yu, Liu Zongyuan, Ouyang Xiu, Su Shi, Su Xun, Su Zhe, Wang Anshi, Zeng Gong). Co-edited New Tangshu with Song Qi, and wrote New History of the Five Dynasties independently. Author of Ouyang Wenzhong Collection. Liuyi Shihua is my countrys first poetry. Texts learned: The Weng Selling Oil, The Story of the Drunkard Pavilion, Picking Mulberry (Qingzhou Duanzhao West Lake is good) 45. Fan Zhongyan, Xiwen, post title Wenzheng, Northern Song Dynasty (Dynasty) politician, military strategist, writer . Author of The Complete Works of Fan Zhongyan, and the text he learned: The Story of Yueyang Tower. 46. ​​Wang Anshi, a native of Linchuan, Jiangxi, with the name Jiefu, titled Banshan, was named King Jingguo, posthumous posthumous title, and was named King Jinggong, Wang Wengong, and Wang Linchuan, one of the eight great masters of the Tang and Song Dynasties, and a reformer in the 11th century in China. The collection is Wang Linchuan Collection. The texts studied Deng Feilai Feng, Yuan Ri, Boat Guazhou, etc. 47. Sima Guang, word Junshi, Feng Guogong Wen, posthumous title Wenzheng, native of Sushui Township, known as Mr. Sushui in the world. One of the two Sima in history. u0026nbsp;The editor-in-chief Zi Zhi Tong Jian is my countrys largest chronicle general history, which records historical facts from the Warring States Period to the Five Dynasties in 1362. One of the history books Shuangbi. The text Sun Quan Encouraging Learning 48. Zhou Dunyi, named Uncle Mao, posthumous posthumous name Yuan Gong, from Daozhou Yingdao (now Hunan Daoxian). u0026nbsp;Northern Song philosopher, author of Taiji Tushu, Tongshu and so on. The text studied: Ailian Shuo 49. Su Shi, with the word Zizhan, named Dongpo Lay. Posthumous title Wenzhong. One of the Eight Great Masters, in calligraphy together with Cai Xiang, Huang Tingjian, and Mi Di, he is called the Song Four. The greatest literati of the Song Dynasty. Be able to create new ideas in the law, send magical ideas outside of boldness. Created the bold and unconstrained Ci school. Together with Han Yu, he is called Han Chao Suhai. Author of Dongpo Collected Works. Texts learned: Remember Chengtian Temple Night Tour, Bu Suanzi. Huangzhou Dinghui Courtyard Residence, Shui Tiao Ge Tou (when in the bright moon), Jiang Chengzi. Hunting in Mizhou, Ding Fengbo (Dont listen to Chuan Lin Beating leaves). 50. Qin Guan, the word is less traveled, and the word is too empty, from Gaoyou, Jiangsu. He is respected as a generation of poets of the Wanyue School, nicknamed Hangou Lay, scholars call him Huaihai Lay. A writer and poet of the Northern Song Dynasty. Representative works: The Magpie Bridge Immortal, Huaihai Collection, Long and Short Sentences of Huaihai Layers. The text you have learned: Xingxiangziu0026nbsp;(The Trees Around the Village) 51. Li Qingzhao, named Yian Jushi, is from Jinan, Shandong, and is from the same city as Xin Qiji. The most important female poet in ancient times, and the highest achiever in the Song Dynastys Graceful Ci School, she is the author of Shuyu Ci. The texts learned are The Pride of the Fisherman (the sky meets the clouds and the Tao and the Xiaowu) Like a Dream (Changji Xiting at sunset). u0026nbsp;52. Lu You, word affairs concept, number Fangweng. He is called Little Li Bai. The author of Manuscripts of Jiannan Poems, Collections of Weinan, Notes of Lao Xuemo. The most prolific poet in ancient China (with more than 9,000 poems). The texts studied are November 4th Wind and Rain, Visit Shanxi Village, Bu Suanzi. Yong Mei 53. Xin Qiji, whose word is Youan, is named Jiaxuan, and is called Su Xin together with Su Shi. The person is called the dragon in the word. The text Jiaxuan Long and Short Sentences. In Song Ci, the outstanding person was achieved, inherited and developed Su Shis bold and unrestrained style of Ci, and opened up the range of expression of Ci. The texts studied Ugly Nuer. Book Boshan Road in the Wall (you do not know the sorrowful taste), Poor Time. Compose Zhuang Ci for Chen Tongfu to Send it, Taichang Yin. Jiankang Mid-Autumn Night for Lu Shuqian Fu, South Xiangzi. Dengjingkou Beigu Pavilion has a bosom. 54. Wen Tianxiang, the word Songrui, Li Shan, the name Wenshan, a national hero. There is The Complete Works of Mr. Wenshan. Patriotic feelings, passionate and moving. The texts studied Crossing Ling Ding Yang Nanan Army 55. Chen Yuyi, the word Qufei, the name Jianzhai. An outstanding poet at the end of the Northern Song Dynasty and the beginning of the Southern Song Dynasty, he was also good at writing lyrics. Although there are only more than ten poems in existence today, they have a unique style, especially close to Su Dongpo, with superb semantics, wide-open brushwork, sparse and clear, natural and smooth, and the author of Jian Zhai Ji. The text I learned Linjiang Immortal·Yideng Xiaoge, Recalling the Old Journey in Luozhongu0026nbsp; u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;(7) Yuanu0026nbsp;56, Ma Zhiyuan, the word is Qianli, the name is Dongli. One of the Four Great Masters (Guan Hanqing, Zheng Guangzu, Bai Pu) of Yuan Opera. The texts he learned are Han Gong Qiu, Sanqu Tianjingsha·Qiu Si (known as the ancestor of autumn thinking), etc., and the author of Dongli Yuefu. One of the highest achievers among the writers of Yuan Sanqu. The text Tianjingsha·Qiu Si 57. Zhang Yanghao, named Ximeng, named Yunzhuang, also known as Qidong Yeren, a famous politician and writer of Yuan Dynasty. The texts learned are Mountain Sheep·Tong Caring for the Past and Mountain Sheep·Lishan Nostalgia. u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;(eight) Ming Dynastyu0026nbsp;58, Shi Naian, was born in the late Yuan Dynasty and early Ming Dynasty. The text The Water Tour of Loyalty, abbreviated as Water Margin, has a hundred chapters, one hundred twenty chapters and seventy chapters. It is my countrys first long story to reflect the peasant uprising, which has a huge impact on the peasant uprising in later generations. u0026nbsp;The text Outsmarting the Birthdate 59. Luo Guanzhong, born in the late Yuan Dynasty and early Ming Dynasty. Mingben, known as Huhai Sanren, is the first writer in China to write popular novels with all his strength. The main works include The Popular Romance of the Three Kingdoms (referred to as The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, The Biography of Sui and Tang Dynasties, and The Three Kingdoms), which is my countrys first full-length historical novel. The text Three Visits to the Thatched Cottageu0026nbsp;60. Wu Chengen, whose name is Ruzhong, is named Sheyang Shanren. The text Journey to the West is a well-known long-length novel about God and Demon, the most brilliant mythological work in classical literature, and it marks a new peak in romantic literature. u0026nbsp;61. Wei Xueying, with the word Zijing, was from Jiashan in the late Ming Dynasty (dynasty). The text He Zhou Ji. u0026nbsp;62. Song Lian, the word Jing Lian, the name Qianxi, the posthumous posthumous title Wenxian. A writer of late Yuan and early Ming Dynasty, he was once hailed as the head of the founding civil servants by Ming Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang, and scholars called Tai Shigong. Song Lian, Gao Qi and Liu Ji were collectively known as the Three Great Masters of Poetry and Prose in the Early Ming Dynasty. His works include Collected Works of Song Xueshi and so on. The text Send Dongyang Horse Shengxue 63. Zhang Dai, Zi Zongzi, named Tao Yi, a native of Shanyin (now Shaoxing, Zhejiang), a writer of late Ming and early Qing dynasties. He is the author of Taoan Dream Recollection and Simons Dream Search and so on. The text studied Looking at the Snow in the Lake Heart Pavilion 64. Xia Wanchun, whose original name is Fu, whose characters are preserved in ancient times, is named Xiaoyin. At the end of the Ming Dynasty, he was a young anti-Qing hero and a famous poet. His father Xia Yunyi and his teacher Chen Zilong are heroes with outstanding literary names and integrity. The text studied Between the Clouds 65. Wang Pan, with the word Hongjian, is called the crown of Nanqu. Sanqu writer and painter in the Ming Dynasty, also known as medicine. Since he was young, he has despised fame and built a building in the west of Gaoyou City, and talked with celebrities during the period, because he called himself West Building. His Sanqu has a wide range of subjects, and although many are casual works, there are also excellent works that sympathize with the suffering of the people and ridicule current affairs. The text The Son of the Emperor: Chanting the Trumpet Liao Zhai Yan Tan Battle Yan Mo Online (9) Qing 66, · Ji Yun, the word Xiaolan, the word spring sail, the evening number Shiyun, the Taoist name Guanyi Taoist, Zhili People from Xian County (now Cangzhou City, Hebei Province). A politician and writer of the Qing Dynasty, author of Yuewei Thatched Cottage Notes. Yuewei Caotang Notes is a strange and strange novel written in the form of notes, which mainly describes fox and ghost stories and peculiar knowledge. The text you have learned: Stone Beasts in the River 67. Pu Songling, with the word Liuxian, named Liuquan Lay, is known as Mr. Liao Zhai in the world. The texts I learned Strange Stories from a Lonely Studio, Promoting Weaving, Wolf, Xi Fangping, Laoshan Taoist, Painted Skin, etc. came from this. A collection of famous short stories in classical Chinese in ancient my country. Reflect reality by talking about ghosts and foxes. The text Wolf 68, Wu Jingzi, the word Wenmu, Minxuan. The text The Scholars Outside History. The text Fan Jinzhongjuu0026nbsp;69. Cao Guqin, name Zhan·zi Mengruan, Hao Xueqin, Qin Pu, Qin Xi. The main work A Dream of Red Mansions (40 chapters after Gao Es continuation) is the greatest realist novel of classical novels, and is the peak of the development of Chinese classical novels. The text Grandma Lius Entry into the Grand View Garden 70. Nalanxingde, Yehenalas, with the word Rongruo, a native of Lengjiashan, a native of Manchuria Zhenghuang Banner, a poet in the early Qing Dynasty. The text Huanxisha (walking toward the cloud mountain)u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;(10) Modernu0026nbsp;71,u0026nbsp;Zhu Ziqing (1898—1948), the word Peixian, a native of Yangzhou, Jiangsu, a essayist, a poet, and a scholar , Democracy fighters. Representative works include Trace, Miscellaneous Notes on Traveling Europe, Travel Notes on Songtang and so on. The texts studied Spring, Back View 72. Lu Xun, formerly known as Zhou Shuren, with the word Yucai. A great writer, thinker, revolutionist, and the leader of Chinas cultural revolution. I wish to Han Xingquan not to observe, I recommend Xuanyuan with my blood; Heng eyebrows coldly pointed at Qianfu, bowing his head and willing to be a ruling cow, this is a true portrayal of his life. The main works include the collection of novels Callu0026nbsp;Wandering, New Stories; Collection of Essays Crossing Flowers in the Evening; Collection of Prose Poems Wild Grass; Collection of Essays Essence of Two Hearts, Collection of Huagai, Essays of Qijieting . Collecting the Flower in the Evening, originally called Revisiting the Past, is a collection of reminiscence essays. This book is Lu Xuns recollection of different life experiences and experiences in childhood, adolescence and youth. The whole book is composed of Small Yin, Dog·Cat·Mouse, A Chang and the Book of Mountains and Seas, Twenty-Four Filial Piety, Wuhanhui, Impermanence, From Baicao Garden to Sanwei Shuwu, Fathers Disease, and Trivial Notes Mr. Fujino, Fan Ainong and Postscript consist of 12 parts. The book Collecting Flowers in the Evening enables more young people to share Lu Xuns warm memories and rational criticism. The texts studied From Baicao Garden to Sanwei Bookstoreu0026nbsp;Mr. Fujino, A Chang and u003cShanhai Jingu003e are selected from Chaohua Xixi; Hometown, Social Opera and Kong Yiji are all selected From Scream, Have Chinese People Lost Their Confidence Selected from Scream 73, Mao Zedong, Zi Runzhi, he is the main founder and leader of the Peoples Republic of China, a great proletarian revolutionary, military strategist, and thinker . The texts studied Memorial of Bethune Qinyuanchun. Snow 74. Liang Shiqiu, formerly named Zhihua, with the word Shiqiu, was born in Hangzhou County, Zhejiang Province. Modern writer, literary critic and translator. Translation of The Complete Works of Shakespeare and so on. The text Bird 75. Zang Kejia, a native of Zhucheng, Shandong, a poet. Representative works include the collection of poems Brand, the poems Old Horse and Some People. The texts he learned Mr. Wen Yiduos Saying and Doing 76. Wen Yiduo, a native of Xishui, Hubei, a poet, scholar, and democracy fighter. Representative works include the collection of poems Red Candle and Dead Water; academic works include Myth and Poems and Poems of the Tang Dynasty. 77. Guo Moruo, formerly known as Guo Kaizhen, was Shangwu. An outstanding writer, poet and dramatist, but also a historian and paleographer. It is another banner on the Chinese cultural front after Lu Xun. A collection of poems Goddess published in 1921 (including Phoenix Nirvana, Rebirth of the Goddess, Coal in the Furnace, etc.); historical dramas include Flower of Tangdi, Qu Yuan, Tiger Symbolu0026nbsp; Gao Jianliu0026nbsp;Peacock Boldu0026nbsp;Cai Wenjiu0026nbsp;Wu Zetian etc., Goddess is an outstanding collection of romantic poems and the first immortal poetry work in the history of new literature in our country, opening a new generation Poetic style. Laid the foundation of the new poetry movement. u0026nbsp;The text learned: The Market in the Sky Drama Qu Yuanu0026nbsp;78. Xiao Hong, formerly known as Zhang Ning (nǎi)ying, was from Hulan, Heilongjiang, a modern Chinese writer, known as the Luo Shen of Literature in the 1930s . Representative works include the novels Hulan River Biography and Life and Death Field. The text he studied Recalling Mr. Lu Xun 79. Duanmu Hongliang, a native of Changtu, Liaoning, formerly known as Cao Jingping, author. Representative works include Kerqin Banner Grassland 80, Zhang Zhongxing, a native of Xianghe Hebei Tun (now Tianjin), a scholar, and a essayist. Together with Ji Xianlin and Jin Kemu, they are called the Three Elders in Yanyuan. Ji Xianlin praised him as a master, an easy man, and a superman. Masterpiece Negative Xuan. Texts learned: Two and Three Things of Mr. Ye Shengtao 81. Ye Shengtao, named Shaojun. Modern writer and educator. The texts studied are the novel Ni Huanzhi, the short stories include Overcharged Three and Five Fights, Night, etc., and the collection of fairy tales include The Scarecrow and The Stone Statue of Ancient Heroes. He was the first to write fairy tales in the history of modern Chinese literature. writer. u0026nbsp;82. Liang Qichao, whose name is Zhuoru, is the name of Ren Gong and the owner of the ice room. Juren during the Guangxu period of the Qing Dynasty, he was a modern Chinese thinker, statesman, educator, historian, and writer. One of the leaders of the Reform Movement of 1898 (Hundred Days Reform) and a representative of the modern Chinese reformists. Lessons learned: The Most Suffering and the Most Pleasure Dedication and Joy 83. Zhu De, Zi Yujie, from Yilong, Sichuan, u0026nbsp;One of the main founders and leaders of the Communist Party of China, the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army and the Peoples Republic of China One. Great proletarian revolutionary, military strategist, and politician. The text studied: Recalling My Motheru0026nbsp; 84. Mao Dun, formerly known as Shen Dehong, written by Yan Bing, Mao Dun is a pen name. An outstanding modern writer, one of the pioneers of the May 4th New Literature Movement. The texts studied Eclipse trilogy (Disillusionment, Shake, Pursuit), Midnight, Rural Trilogy (Spring Silkwormu0026nbsp;Autumn Harvestu0026nbsp;Winter)u0026nbsp ; Lins Shop, prose Landscape Talk, Midnight is the first realist masterpiece in the history of modern Chinese literature, showing the combat achievements of the left-wing literary camp. Texts learned: The Praise of the White Poplar 85. Wang Zengqi, a modern and contemporary writer. His representative works include Initiation of Precepts and Danao Chronicles. The text studied: Rain in Kunming 86. Lao She, formerly known as Shu Qingchun, with the word Sheyu, Manchu. Won the title of Peoples Artist in 1950. The novel Like a Camelu0026nbsp;Four Generations Under the Same House, the script Teahouseu0026nbsp;Dragons Beard Ditchu0026nbsp;Looking to Changan from the West etc. The strong local colors, the vivid and lively use of Beijing spoken language, are popular and humorous. It formed Lao Shes style and was also the pioneer of Beijing-style novels. The text Jinans Winteru0026nbsp;87. Mao Yisheng, a bridge expert in my country. The text Chinese Stone Arch Bridge 88, Ye Shengtao, formerly known as Ye Shaojun, word Shengtao, writer, educator. Representative works include the novel Ni Huanzhi and so on. The texts studied Suzhou Gardens, Driving Our Imagination  89, Tao Xingzhi (October 18, 1891-July 25, 1946), formerly known as Tao Wenjun. A native of Shè County, Anhui Province, Chinese peoples educator, thinker, and great democratic fighter. Three propositions of life is education, society is school, and integration of teaching and learning are put forward. Life education theory is the core of Tao Xingzhis educational thoughts. His works include: Chinese Educational Reformation, Records of Bell Ringing in Ancient Temples, Free Talks on Zhaifu, Xingzhi Letters, Xingzhi Poetry Collection. Selected into the text Creation Declaration. 89. Formerly known as Xie Wanying, a famous female writer. The collection of texts and poems learned Stars, Spring Water, the collection of essays Send Young Readers, Sakura Praise, etc. Sing maternal love, innocence, and the sea with aphorism-style verses. The prose also expresses the philosophy of love and is hailed as the representative of beautiful prose. One of the texts Two Prose Poems, Lotus Leaf. Mother. u0026nbsp;90, Gu Jiegang (jié), the word Mingjian, the pen names are Yu Yi, Mingjian, etc. A native of Suzhou, Jiangsu. Famous historian and folklorist in modern China, founder of the School of Discrimination of Ancient History, pioneer and founder of modern historical geography and folklore. The text Doubt and Learning. u0026nbsp;91. Wen Yiduo, whose real name is Wen Jiahua, Zi Yousan, was born in Xishui County, Huanggang City, Hubei Province, a great modern Chinese patriot, a staunch democracy fighter, an early leader of the Chinese Democratic League, the Crescent School Represents poets and scholars. u0026nbsp;Selected text: The Last Lecture 92. Ai Qing, formerly known as Jiang Haicheng, is a famous poet. His works marked an important stage in the development of free poetry after the May 4th Movement and brought great influence on the creation of new poems in the future. The text I studied I Love This Land 93. Yu Guangzhong was born in Nanjing and later moved to Taiwan as a poet and essayist. The text Homesickness. u0026nbsp;94. Chen Yi, proletarian revolutionary, statesman, military strategist, diplomat, poet, one of the ten marshals of the People’s Republic of China. In 1977, the collection of his posthumous works Chen Yis Poems Selected Works was published. Selected into the text Three Chapters of Meiling. 95. Shen Yinmo, formerly known as Jun Mo, is an outstanding scholar, poet and calligrapher. During the May Fourth Movement, as a famous professor at Peking University, he and Lu Xun, Chen Duxiu and others took turns to edit the New Youth magazine, and his representative works such as Moon Night, Falling Leaves, and Sanxian. Selected text: Moon Night of Five Short Poems 96. Dai Wangshu, a famous modern poet. Published the first collection of poems Rain Alley and was passed down for a while, so he was known as Poet of Rain Alley. At the end of 1941, he was arrested and imprisoned by Japanese invaders. In prison, he wrote famous poems such as Inscription on the Wall in Prison, I Use a Broken Palm and Waiting. Selected texts: Five Short Poems Xiao Hongs Tomb Bank Kouzhan 97, Bian Zhilin, born in Tangjia Town, Haimen, Jiangsu, modern and contemporary poet (one of the Three Poets in Hanyuan), literary critic, and translator. He is recognized as the representative poet of the Crescent School and the Modern School, an important poetry school in the New Culture Movement. Selected texts: Five Short Poems 98, Lu Di, born in 1912, modern poet. Formerly known as Chen Peidi, he was born in Nanhai, Guangdong. Co-edited publications with others. Joined the Chinese Writers Association in 1956 and later served as a professor at Jinan University. He has written poetry collections Sang Ye, Chi-drive Collection, Ludi Poetry Selection, etc., as well as poetry theory, appreciation articles and works. Selected text: Five Short Poems, Wind and Rain 99. Neruda, a famous Chilean poet. He began publishing poems at the age of 13, published his first collection of poems Twilight in 1923, and published his famous work Twenty Love Poems and a Desperate Song in 1924, and has since been on the Chilean poetry scene. There are two themes in Nerudas life, one is politics and the other is love. Selected text: Unification 100 of Five Short Poems, Qiu Jin, formerly known as Guijin, with the word Xuanqing, self-titled Jingxiong, another name Jianhu Swordswoman, Han Xias daughter. An advocate of Chinese womens rights and womens studies, and a modern democratic revolutionist. In the early morning of July 15, 1907, Qiu Jin calmly went to Xuantingkou, Shaoxing, at the age of 32. Selected texts: Man River Red (Small Living in Beijing) 101, Ma Nancun, formerly known as Deng Tuo, Deng Zijian, and Deng Yunte. The pen names are Ma Nancun, Yu Suian, Bu Wuji, etc. His main works include History of Chinas Famine Rescue, Yanshan Night Talk, On Several Issues in China and so on. Selected text: Dont Seek More Understanding 102. Zhu Guangqian, modern esthetician and literary theorist, born in Tongcheng, Anhui. Zhu Guangqian is one of the pioneers and founders of modern aesthetics in my country, and the first person to introduce Western aesthetics extensively in China. Selected text: The Beauty of Silence 103. Li Keran is a native of Xuzhou, Jiangsu. An outstanding painter and poet in modern China, and a disciple of the painter Qi Baishi. At the age of 72, he served as the vice chairman of the Chinese Artists Association and the dean of the Chinese Painting Research Institute. In old age, pen tends to be old-fashioned. Good at painting landscapes, figures, especially cattle. Selected text: The Artistic Conception of Landscape Paintingu0026nbsp;(11) Contemporaryu0026nbsp;104, Shi Tiesheng, contemporary writer, born in Beijing, representative works include the collection of novels My Faraway Qingping Bay, Ming Ruo Qin Xian, Retreat Notes ; Prose collection I and the Temple of Earth, Albizia Tree, Broken Pens and so on. The text Autumn Remembrance 105. Mo Huaiqi, a writer from Chongqing. My wife and I walked slowly, steadily, and carefully, as if what was on my back combined with what was on her back was the whole world. Deepen the center of the article, showing the traditional virtues of the Chinese nation of respecting the old and loving the young. u0026nbsp;The basic methods of character description: appearance description, language description, action description, and psychological description. 106. Zheng Zhenduo, modern writer, translator and historian of literature. The text Cat is Yuan Ke, a native of Xindu, Sichuan, a mythologist, and the author of Ancient Chinese Mythology and Annotation to Shanhaijing and so on. The text Nuwa Creates Humans 107. Yang Jiang, from Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, is a writer and translator. Representative work Six Notes of Cadre School, translation Don Quixote and so on. Lessons learned: Pharaoh 108. Jia Pingwa, formerly known as Jia Pingwa, was born in Danfeng, Shaanxi. 2008 Qin Opera won the 7th Mao Dun Literature Award for the text learned u0026nbsp;A Little Peach Tree 109, He Jingzhi. Famous modern revolutionary poet and playwright. In 1945, he and Ding Yi collectively created my countrys first new opera The White Haired Girl, which won the Stalin Prize for Literature in 1951. u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;The text Back to Yanan 110, Liu Chengzhang, from Yanan, Shaanxi. His collection of essays The Sheep Wants Clouds won the first Lu Xun Literature Award. The text Ansai Waist Drum is an article praising the agitation of life and majestic power. 111. Wu Boxiao, formerly known as Xicheng, was from Laiwu, Shandong. Essayist, educator. The text Lantern Zhu Kezhen, a native of Shangyu, Zhejiang. Meteorologist, geographer. The text Language of Nature was rewritten based on A High-yield Science-Phenology by Zhu Kezhen, Issue 1 of Science Mass, 1963. 112、丁肇中,美籍华裔物理学家,获1976年诺贝尔物理学奖。 u0026nbsp;所学课文:《应有格物致知精神》113、王选,江苏无锡人,计算机文字信息处理专家,被誉为“当代毕昇”。 2002年获国家最高科学技术奖。由他领导研制成功的“汉字激光照排系统”为我国新闻出版业普及推广中文计算机排版做出了重大贡献。 u0026nbsp;所学课文:《我一生中的重要抉择》原题为《我一生中的八个重要抉择》114、梁衡u0026nbsp;,著名学者、新闻理论家、作家。山西霍州人。 u0026nbsp;所学课文:《壶口瀑布》选自《梁衡文集》。 115、马丽华,u0026nbsp;女作家。代表作有《走进西藏》等,被誉为“西藏的歌者和行者”。所学课文:《在长江源头各拉丹冬》选自《藏北游历》116、阿来,藏族,当代著名作家,2000年,年仅41岁的阿来凭借长篇小说《尘埃落定》荣获第五届茅盾文学奖,成为茅盾文学奖史上最年轻的获奖者。 u0026nbsp;所学课文:《一滴水经过丽江》117穆旦(1918-1977),原名查良铮,曾用笔名梁真,祖籍浙江省海宁市袁花镇,出生于天津。现代主义诗人、翻译家。所学课文:《我看》118、曹文轩,1954年1月出生于江苏盐城,中国儿童文学作家。 1977年毕业于北京大学中文系并留校任教。 u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;所学课文:《孤独之旅》119、毕淑敏,选入课文《精神的三间小屋》120、舒婷,原名龚佩瑜,1952年生,福建泉州人。朦胧诗派的代表作家之一。著有诗集《双桅船》(获全国第一届新诗集优秀奖)、《会唱歌的鸢尾花》《舒婷顾城抒情诗选》,散文集《心烟》。所学课文:《祖国啊,我亲爱的祖国》121、刘绍棠,当代作家,北京通县人,17岁就出版小说集《青枝绿叶》。 《暮春》题意:点出故事发生的时间;概括文章的中心内容--在人生的暮年又青春焕发。所学课文:《蒲柳人家》u0026nbsp;122、宗 璞,当代女作家。 《西湖的绿》(选自《宗璞小说散文集》)所学课文:《紫藤萝瀑布》u0026nbsp;123、阿城,原名钟阿城,1949年于清明节出生在北京,籍贯为四川江津,中国当代作家。发表小说集《棋王》,获1984年福建《中短篇小说选刊》优秀作品奖和1983-1984年全国优秀中篇小说奖。所学课文:《溜索》124、何冀平 中国剧作家,中国文学艺术界联合会第十届全委会委员。 1988年,何冀平创作的《天下第一楼》演出后轰动京城,演出场次仅次于《茶馆》,被誉为当代现实主义经典。所学课文:《天下第一楼》(十二)外国作家u0026nbsp;125、泰戈尔,印度作家、诗人。作品有诗集《吉檀迦利》《新月集》《园丁集》《飞鸟集》等,获1913年诺贝尔文学奖。所学课文《散文诗二首》之一《金色花》。 126、海伦•凯勒,美国女作家,教育家。 1964年被授予“总统自由勋章”。作品有《假如给我三天光明》。所学课文《再塑生命的人》127、让•乔诺,法国作家,电影编剧。所学课文《植树的牧羊人》128、康拉德•劳伦兹,奥地利(国别)动物行为学家,科普作家,代表作有《所罗门王的指环》《狗的家世》。获得1973年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖。所学课文《动物笑谈》129、阿西莫夫,美国科普作家、科幻小说家。代表作有《基地》《u0026nbsp; 新疆域u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;》。所学课文《恐龙无处不有》《被压扁的沙子》130、伊索,古希腊作家,善讲寓言讽刺权贵,所编寓言经后世加工结集《伊索寓言》。所学课文《赫尔墨斯和雕像者》《蚊子与狮子》131、都德,法国19世纪著名作家。所学课文长篇小说代表作《小东西》等,短篇小说有《最后一课》、《柏林之围》等。与福楼拜、左拉、龚古尔、屠格涅夫组成文学社团五人聚餐会。 132、普希金,近代俄罗斯现实主义文学奠基人被誉为“俄罗斯文学之父”代表作《致大海》《自由颂》。所学课文:《假如生活欺骗了你》133、弗罗斯特,20世纪最受欢迎的美国诗人之一。 《未选择的路》选自《中外哲理诗精选》。 134、茨威格,u0026nbsp;奥地利著名作家、小说家、传记作家,诗人家,剧作家,擅长写小说、人物传记传记文学代表作有《三位大师》《罗曼.罗兰》,小说代表作《一个陌生女人的来信》《象棋的故事》等。所学课文:《伟大的悲剧》《列夫.托尔斯泰》。 135、罗素,英国哲学家、数学家、作家。所学课文:《我为什么而活着》136、法布尔,法国昆虫学家、作家,代表作《昆虫记》。所学课文:《蝉》137、利奥波德,美国生态学家。所学课文:《大雁归来》选自《沙乡年鉴》。 138、顾拜旦,法国教育家、社会活动家,现代奥林匹克运动创始人。本文是他在1919年4月瑞士洛桑国际奥委会全体委员大会上发表的演讲。 u0026nbsp;所学课文:《庆祝奥林匹克运动复兴25周年》选自《奥林匹克主义——顾拜旦文选》139、马克·吐翁,美国作家,代表作有小说《汤姆·索亚历险记》《哈克贝利·费恩历险记》。 u0026nbsp;所学课文:《登勃朗峰》选自《远处的青山》140、雨果,法国浪漫主义作家,被称为“法兰西的莎士比亚”。主要作品有《九三年》《巴黎圣母院》《悲惨世界》。所学课文:《就英法联军远征中国致巴特勒上尉的信》141、莫泊桑,19世纪后半叶法国批判现实主义作家,与俄国契诃夫和美国欧·亨利并称为世界三大短篇小说巨匠。代表作品有《项链》、《羊脂球》和《我的叔叔于勒》等。所学课文:《我的叔叔于勒》142、·高尔基,苏联伟大的文学家,无产阶级艺术的杰出代表(列宁语), 著有长篇小说《母亲》,自传体三部曲《童年》、《在人间》、《我的大学》等。所学课文《海燕》u0026nbsp;143、安徒生,丹麦著名童话作家。他一生写有160多篇童话,如《卖火柴的小女孩》、《丑小鸭》、《海的女儿》等。所学课文《皇帝的新装》144、契诃夫,俄国作家。主要作品有短篇小说《小公务员之死》、《变色龙》,中篇小说《第六病室》,剧本《海鸥》、《万尼亚舅舅》、《三姊妹》,是俄罗斯唯一以短篇小说创作登上世界文坛高峰的作家。所学课文《变色龙》145、培根(Francis Bacon,1561-1626)英国著名的唯物主义哲学家、现代实验科学的始祖,作家。著有《随笔》,《新工具》等。 《随笔》共58篇是英国文学中首创。所学课文《谈读书》146、100·尼·奥斯特洛夫斯基。前苏联作家,所学课文《钢铁是怎样炼成的》。 u0026nbsp;聊斋艳谭之战艳魔在线(十三)作品介绍u0026nbsp;147、四书、五经:四书即《论语》、《大学》、《中庸》、《孟子》;u0026nbsp;五经为《诗》、《书》、《易》、《礼》、《春秋》。 五经再加上《论语》、《孝经》为七经。 u0026nbsp;148、《列子》:相传为战国时郑国人列御寇所作。书中还保存了一些先秦时代优秀的寓言故事和神话传说,如《愚公移山》、《歧路亡羊》等,想象丰富,清新活泼。 u0026nbsp;149、《史记》:西汉司马迁著,我国第一部纪传体通史,原名《太史公书》,共一百三十篇,分为八书、十表、十二本纪、三十世家、七十列传。它记载了黄帝到汉武帝时长达三千年的历史,其人物传记开我国史传文学的先河。 《史记》是古代散文史上的一座丰碑,给后人以无尽的启示和深远的影响,被鲁迅誉为史家之绝唱,无韵之离骚。 u0026nbsp;150、《楚辞》:我国第一部浪漫主义诗歌总集,由于诗歌的形式是在楚国民歌的基础上加工形成,篇中又大量引用楚地的风土物产和方言词汇,所以叫楚辞。 《楚辞》主要是屈原、宋玉等人作品,是西汉末年刘向搜集辑录而成。后人又称楚辞为骚体。 《楚辞》对后世文学影响深远,不仅开启了后来的赋体,而且影响历代散文创作。是我国积极浪漫主义诗歌创作的源头。 u0026nbsp;151、《吕氏春秋》:又名《吕览》,先秦杂家的代表著作,由战国末秦相吕不韦集合门客编成,全书共二十六卷。此书是一部理论散文最早的总集。 u0026nbsp;152、《诗经》:我国第一部诗歌总集,通称为《诗》或《诗三百》,到了汉代,儒家奉它为经,才称《诗经》,共305篇,分为风、雅、颂三部分,《诗经》是我国诗歌现实主义优良传统的源头,其思想内容和艺术成就,对我国文学,尤其是诗歌的发展有着深广的影响。诗歌的形成以四言为主,多数为隔句用韵,并普遍运用赋、比、兴的表现手法,在章法上具有重章叠句反复咏唱的特点。所学课文:《关雎》(周南)《蒹葭》(秦风)《式微》(邶风)《子衿》(郑风)153、《古诗十九首》:无名氏作,它继承了乐府民歌中抒情诗的技巧,又吸收了《诗经》、《楚辞》的营养,用自然、朴素的语言表达深挚的感情,它代表了汉代五言诗的艺术高峰。 u0026nbsp;选入课文:《庭中有奇树》154、《礼记》,战国至秦汉间儒家论著的汇编,相传是西汉经学家戴圣编纂的。选入课文:《虽有佳肴》《大道之行也》155、《左传》:是我国第一部叙事详细、完整的编年体史书。原名《左氏春秋》、又称《春秋左氏传》,相传为鲁国史官左丘明所著。 《左传》具有很高的文学价值,对后世影响很大,不仅在历史著作的撰写方面作出了光辉的榜样,还为散文的叙事,议论和小说、戏剧的题材提供了丰富的养料。 u0026nbsp;156、《晏子春秋》:记载齐国晏婴言行轶事的著作。在一定程度上真实反映了当时社会现实,文章有较浓厚的文学色彩。 u0026nbsp;157、《乐府诗集》:诗集名,宋郭茂倩编,辑录了汉魏至唐五代的乐府歌辞。有民歌作文人创作,也有仿作。 u0026nbsp;158、《三国志》:西晋陈寿著。是一部纪传体分国史。分《魏志》《蜀志》《吴志》共三十八卷。 u0026nbsp;159、《春秋三传》:指《春秋左氏传》、《公羊传》、《谷梁传》。 u0026nbsp;160、《汉书》,东汉班固撰,是我国第一部纪传体断代史,全书共一百篇,体制承袭《史记》,但又有变,分为八表、十志、十二本纪、七十列传,它记述了自汉高祖元年至王莽共二百二十九年的历史。其成就亦很高,对后来的断代史产生了很大影响。 u0026nbsp;161、《论语》:儒家经典著作之一,孔子弟子及再传弟子编篡,主要记述孔子言行,孔子答弟子和当时人的话,也有弟子互相谈论他们听到的孔子的话。全书以记言为主,是一部语录体著作。 u0026nbsp;162、《资治通鉴》:宋司马光主持编写的我国最大的一部编年体通史,它综合了各朝纪传体断代史的成果,把上起战国,下至五代长达一千三百六十多年的历史,以年月为经,史实为纬,依时代顺序贯通起来叙述。书名意思是鉴于人事,资于治道,即吸收历代兴衰成败的经验教训,作为封建统治者治理国家、人民的借鉴。 u0026nbsp;163、《战国策》:是西汉刘向根据战国史书整理编辑的,共33篇,分国编次,是一部国别体史学著作,又称《国策》。 164、《西游记》:是我国古代著名的浪漫主义的长篇神话小说,全书共一百回,取材于唐僧取经的故事,刻画了孙悟空的形象,表现了他蔑视权威,不畏强暴,除恶务尽的战斗精神,可以说,整部书是孙悟空的战斗史。 u0026nbsp;165、《三国演义》是我国最早的一部章回体长篇历史小说,全称《三国志通俗演义》,罗贯中著。它是我国历史小说的开山之作,艺术上的突出成就是战争描写。 u0026nbsp;166、永州八记:唐代柳宗元所写的有连续性的山水游记,共八篇,后人称为《永州八记》,其中《小石潭记》最有名。 167、《水浒传》:是我国古代描写农民革命斗争的著名长篇白话章回体小说,又名《忠义水浒传》,全书以北宋末年宋江所领导的农民起义为题材,明确地提出了替天行道的斗争纲领,塑造了一百零八名梁山好汉的英雄形象,揭示了封建社会官逼民反的客观真理,也真实描述了封建社会中农民革命必然遭到失败的历史悲剧。 u0026nbsp;168、《儒林外史》:是我国古代优秀的长篇讽刺小说,吴敬梓著,全书共五十四回,由许多彼此独立的故事连缀而成,主要内容是批判各种类型的封建士大夫的功名利禄观念,着重抨击科举制度,刻画士人的种种丑态,暴露封建社会的黑暗和腐朽。在艺术上,讽刺手法超过了以前任何作品。 u0026nbsp;169、风骚:《诗经》和《楚辞》的并称。 《诗经》中的《国风》,《楚辞》中的《离骚》,都是古代作品,对后代文学很有影响,故常以风骚并举,后来风骚直接指代《诗经》、《楚辞》。 u0026nbsp;170、《红楼梦》:又名《石头记》,是我国最伟大的长篇小说。共一百二十回,全书以贾宝玉、林黛玉的爱情悲剧为主线,通过贾府的兴衰历史的叙述,揭露了封建家族的荒淫、腐败,揭示了封建制度濒于崩溃和必然灭亡的命运。 u0026nbsp;171、《伊索寓言》,古希腊寓言集。所选课文《赫耳墨斯和雕像者》。 u0026nbsp;172、《克雷洛夫寓言集》,作者克雷洛夫,俄国著名寓言家。 u0026nbsp;173、《天方夜谭》,又名《一千零一夜》,古代阿拉伯民间故事集,课文《渔夫的故事》出自此。 u0026nbsp;(十四)综合常识u0026nbsp;174、民间故事:是一种立足于现实而富有幻想的口头文学作品,有四个特点:A完整的故事情节B鲜明的人物性格C语言口语化D富有生活气息和地方色彩。 u0026nbsp;中国四大民间故事:《白蛇传》、《牛郎织女》、《孟姜女》、《梁祝传奇》。 u0026nbsp;175、神话:指反映古代人们对世界起源、自然现象和社会生活的理解,并通过超自然的形象和幻想的形式来表现的故事和传说。神话最大的特点就是借助想象来表达古代人民征服自然力的理想和追求。中国神话,多见于《山海经》:我国地理名著。内容多为古代民间传说中的地理知识。其中保存了大量远古神话传说,如黄帝战尤、精卫填海、夸父追日等。 u0026nbsp;中国常见的神话故事:女娲造人、盘古开天、嫦娥奔月、后羿射日等。 u0026nbsp;西方神话,多为希腊神话。相关神话人物:u0026nbsp;(1)宙斯(罗马神话称为朱庇特),希腊神话中最高的天神,掌管雷电云雨,是人和神的主宰。 u0026nbsp;(2)阿波罗,希腊神话中宙斯的儿子,主管光明、青春、音乐、诗歌等,常以手持弓箭的又少年形象出现。 u0026nbsp;(3)雅典娜,希腊神话中智慧女神,雅典城邦的保护神。 u0026nbsp;(4)潘多拉,希腊神话中的第一个女人。貌美性诈,私自打开宙斯送她的一只盒子,里面装的疾病、疯狂、罪恶、嫉妒等祸患,一齐飞出,只有希望留在盒底,人间因此充满灾难。 潘多拉的盒子成为祸灾的来源的同义语。 (5)普罗米修斯,希腊神话中造福人间的神。盗取天火带到人间,并传授给人类多种手艺,触怒宙斯,被锁在高加索山崖,受神鹰啄食。是一个反抗强暴、不惜为人类牺牲一切的英雄。 u0026nbsp;(6)斯芬克司,希腊神话中的狮身女怪。常叫过路行人猜谜,猜不出即将行人杀害;后因谜底被俄底浦斯道破,即自杀。后常喻谜一样的人物。埃及狮身人面像同名。 u0026nbsp;176、传记,又叫人物传记,是记述人物生平事迹的一种应用文,体裁属于记叙文样式的一种。传记分两类:自传和他传。主要特点:实录。表达方式:记事为主,兼插议论。 u0026nbsp;177、四大文学体裁,小说、散文、诗歌、戏剧。 u0026nbsp;178、戏剧,是一种以表演艺术为中心的综合艺术。主要特点a尖锐的矛盾冲突;b人物、场景、情节高度集中;c人物语言个性化、行动化和口语化;u0026nbsp;戏剧包括话剧、歌剧、舞剧。 u0026nbsp;舞台说明,戏剧剧本中说明性的文字叫舞台说明,内容包括时间、地点、服装、道具、布景以及人物的表情、动作、上下场等。 u0026nbsp;作用:a刻画人物性格b展开故事情节u0026nbsp;179、小说,是以刻画人物形象为中心,通过完整的故事情节和具体的环境描写来反映社会生活的文学体裁。小说三要素:人物、情节、环境。小说中的人和事,不同于生活中的人和事(记叙文几种样式中的人和事)。如鲁迅小说《故乡》中的人物我就不能等同于作者鲁迅。 u0026nbsp;小说结构一般分为开端、发展、高潮、结局几个部分。 u0026nbsp;根据小说的篇幅容量,一般分为长篇、中篇、短篇小说三类,篇幅特别短小的叫微型小说。 u0026nbsp;小说为塑造人物形象常用的手法:描写。描写分:语言描写、行动描写、外貌描写、心理描写等,此外,还运用细节描写和白描手法来刻画人物。 u0026nbsp;在塑造人物上还交替运用正面描写和侧面描写。如《孔乙己》。 u0026nbsp;此外,小说还运用环境描写(自然环境、社会环境)。 u0026nbsp;环境描写作用:a烘托人物性格b推动情节发展c交代时代背景d渲染气氛u0026nbsp;180、散文,是一种篇幅短小,形式自由,能迅速反映社会生活的文学体裁。散文不要求有完整的故事情节,应用范围最广泛,语言表达方式更灵活,记叙、描写、议论、抒情、说明,无所不可。 形散而神不散是散文结构的主要特点。根据散文表达方式的侧重点,可分抒情性散文、叙事性散文、议论性散文三类。 u0026nbsp;181、通讯,对现实生活中的典型人物和事件进行具体报道的叫通讯。 u0026nbsp;通讯分事件通讯和人物通讯。事件通讯如《扶摇直上九天》、《抢财神》。 u0026nbsp;人物通讯如《永不后悔的选择》、《草莽英雄》。 u0026nbsp;182、新闻,包括标题、导语、主体三个部分。标题通常是新闻内容的提要,导语是事件或事件中心的概述,主体介绍有关情况或进一步突出中心。 u0026nbsp;新闻标题可由:引题(交代基本情况,烘托气氛)正题(表示主要事实和中心)u0026nbsp;副题(对正题作补充说明)三部分组成。 u0026nbsp;183、特写,特写是报告文学的一种,它截取人物或事件的某个片段,细致地加以描述,如《苦练》。 u0026nbsp;184、书信,分两类,日常书信和专用书信。专用书信。指的是生活书信以外的各种社交书信,如慰问信、祝贺信、介绍信、求荐信、商业书信(商务信函、营业申请书)等。 u0026nbsp;185、计划,计划三要素:目标、措施、步骤。 u0026nbsp;条文式计划结构的三个组成部分:标题、正文、结尾。 186、总结的三个组成部分:标题、正文、署名和日期。 u0026nbsp;正文四方面内容:基本情况概述,主要成绩和经验,存在问题和教训,今后努力方向。 u0026nbsp;187、古代几种常用文体:u0026nbsp;(1)说--一种文体,可以记叙,可以议论,也可以抒情,但都是为了说理。如《爱莲说》、《捕蛇者说》、《马说》。 (2)铭--本是刻在金属器物或石碑上用来警戒自己或颂扬他人的韵文,后来成为一种专门文体。如《陋室铭》。 u0026nbsp;(3)表--古时臣下向帝王上书言事的一种文体,可议论,也可以记叙和抒情,如《出师表》。 u0026nbsp;(4)记--记是记叙事物的文章,记以叙事、写景、状物成分居多,但目的在于抒发作者的感情和抱负或阐述作者对问题的看法。如《桃花源记》、《岳阳楼记》、《醉翁亭记》。 188、三春--指正月孟春、二月仲春、三月季春。 189、兄弟排行--伯、仲、叔、季。 u0026nbsp;190、古代八音--金、石、土、草、丝、木、竹、匏(páo,笙竽)八类。 u0026nbsp;191、中国四大古典小说:《西游记》、《三国演义》、《水浒》、《红楼梦》。 u0026nbsp;192、五谷--菽、麦、稻、谷、稷。 u0026nbsp;193、三苏--苏洵、苏轼、苏辙。 u0026nbsp;194、三曹--曹操、曹丕、曹植。 u0026nbsp;195、诗歌分类:按照表达方式分--抒情诗、叙事诗、哲理诗。 u0026nbsp;按照体裁分--古体诗(古代诗歌)、近体诗(包括绝句、律诗、词、曲)、新诗(包括散文诗、现代诗歌)。 u0026nbsp;律诗特点:每首八句,两句一联,依次叫首联、颔联、颈联、尾联。中间两联一般对仗,偶数句压韵,第一句可以压韵,也可以不押韵。 u0026nbsp;(十五)中学语文课文名胜对联辑录u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp; 1·滁州醉翁亭:翁去八百年,醉乡犹在;山行六七里,亭影不孤。 u0026nbsp; 2·湖南岳阳楼:四面湖山归眼底;万家忧乐到心头。 u0026nbsp; 3·成都杜甫草堂:草堂留后世;诗圣著千秋。 u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp; 4·洞庭月,衡岳云,巫山雨,波撼气蒸,揽天下风光,堪称独步;崔灏诗,范相记,王勃序,两楼一阁,数江南文物,各有千秋。 -- (《黄鹤楼诗》《岳阳楼记》《滕王阁序》u0026nbsp;)(十六)与课文相关的名家颂对联辑录u0026nbsp;1·集群圣之大成,振玉声金,道通中外;立万世之师表,存神过化,德合乾坤。 --颂孔子u0026nbsp;2·何处招魂,香草还生三户地;当年呵壁,湘流应识九歌心。 ---颂屈原u0026nbsp;3·金石文章空八代,江山姓氏著千秋。 --颂韩愈u0026nbsp;4·韩潮学派百三汇,公起文章八代衰。 --颂韩愈u0026nbsp;5·兵甲富于胸中,一代功名高宋室;忧乐关乎天下,千秋俎豆重苏台。 --颂范仲淹u0026nbsp;6·犹留正气参天地,永剩丹心照古今。 --颂文天祥u0026nbsp;7·宰相状元余事之,文章义节两兼之。 --颂文天祥u0026nbsp;8·铁板铜琶,继东坡高唱大江东去;美芹悲黍,冀南宋莫随鸿雁南飞。 --颂辛弃疾u0026nbsp;9·有志者事竞成,破釜沉舟,百二秦关终属楚;苦心人天不负,卧薪尝胆,三千越甲可吞吴。 u0026nbsp;--蒲松龄撰联颂项羽、勾践u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp; u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;10·一代君权痛蚕室,千秋史笔溯龙门。 --颂司马迁u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;11·刚正不阿,留得正气凌霄汉;幽而发愤,著成信史照尘寰。 ---颂司马迁u0026nbsp;12·质而绮,真且醇,自可传之千古;樽中酒,篱下诗,岂甘了此一生。 --颂陶渊明u0026nbsp;13·大明湖畔,趵突泉边,故居在绿杨深处;漱玉集中,金石录里,文采有后主遗风。 --颂李清照u0026nbsp;14·酌酒花间,磨针石上;倚剑天外,挂弓扶桑。 --颂李白u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;15·盛唐诗酒无双士,青莲文苑第一家。 --颂李白u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;16·缅想忠贞,补阙拾遗犹昨事;何来环佩,清辉香雾替诗魂。 --颂杜甫u0026nbsp;17·世上疮痍,诗中圣哲;民间疾苦,笔底波澜。 --颂社甫u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;18·诗史数千言,秋天一鹄先生骨;草堂三五里,春水群鸥野老心。 ---颂杜甫u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;19·笔诤时政,心在苍生,万户争传新乐府;堤建西湖,神归东洛,千秋永祀老诗翁。 --颂白居易u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;20·枫叶四弦秋,棖触天涯迁谪恨;浔阳千尺水,勾留江上别离情。 --颂白居易u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;21·王业不偏安,两表于今悬日月;臣言当尽瘁,六军长此驻风云。 --颂诸葛亮u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;22·宦游西蜀,志复中原,高吟铁马铜驼,烟尘誓扫还金阙;诗继少陵,派开南宋,更入清风明月,池馆重新接草堂。 --颂陆游u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;23·文官不爱钱,武官不惜死,果如公言,宋室何至南渡;罪名莫须有,忠冢栖霞山,长留人愿,国魂几时北来。 --颂岳飞u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;24·写鬼写妖高人一等,刺贪刺虐入骨三分。 --颂蒲松龄u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;25·著作最谨严,岂徒中国小说史;遗言犹沉痛,莫作空头文学家。 --颂鲁迅u0026nbsp;26·萃父子兄弟于一门,八家唐宋占三席;悟骈散诗词之特征,千变纵横识其源。 --颂三苏父子u0026nbsp;27·译著尚未成功,惊闻殒星,中国何人领呐喊;先生已经作古,痛忆旧雨,文坛从此感彷徨。 --美国作家斯诺与剧作家姚运合写的悼念鲁迅的挽联u0026nbsp;28·唐代论诗人,李杜以远,惟有几篇新乐府;苏州怀刺史,湖山之边,尚有三庙旧祠堂。 --诵白居易u0026nbsp;29·u0026nbsp;收二川,排八阵,六出七擒,五丈原前,点四十九盏明灯,一心只为酬三顾。 u0026nbsp;去西蜀,定南蛮,东和北拒,中军帐里,变金木土爻神卦,水面偏能用火攻。 --颂诸葛亮u0026nbsp;三顾:三顾茅庐u0026nbsp;,u0026nbsp;六出:六出祁山,u0026nbsp; 七擒:七擒孟获u0026nbsp;,东和:东和孙吴,u0026nbsp;北拒:北拒曹魏,u0026nbsp; 收二川:收取东川西川u0026nbsp;,u0026nbsp;排八阵:摆设八阵图u0026nbsp;
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